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If the cost of testing is prohibitive, then we might just need to live with the fact that there are dopers who will not get caught. Regardless of what role he fills for any athlete or group thereof, quackery and a sensible discussion on PED use are not good bedfellows. It is very interesting that my comment is at and counting at the moment when, precisely because unqualified pseudo-scientists have been invited to speculate on the topic of PED use, by the media, Chris Froome has been doused in urine, Richie Porte has been punched, other riders have been spat on and the Sky cars have been pelted with unopened cans of coke, in an ugly week at the TdF.
In this article at least the speculation is not inflammatory, but one would hope lessons were being learnt, the unqualified have no place in this debate — period. Let's say after 40, I decide to take TRT. Not for any medical condition, but because I want to be stronger, have more energy, recover faster, and fuck longer and harder. Would it be ethically wrong for me to run ultras if I am middle or back of the pack and not actually competing for a win? Where would that course of action leave the other middle or back of pack runners who had decided not to take TRT?
Most of us never threaten to outright win an ultra. What we all do though is compete against the other runners who are as fast or slow as we are. Of course I would like to recover faster, and run like a young buck again, but that was then and this is now. When it comes to PEDs it doesn't really matter that you are "just" finishing in the middle of the pack. Your competition is that very pack. I would not feel any sense of accomplishment if I knew that I just finished 45 minutes faster because I've used a banned chemical substance.
Well yeah, because you could be further back in the pack without it, taking places away from other middle ground runners who run clean. I disagree with the other replies. I don't see anything ethically wrong with that. The person has made a decision to do something that they perceive as improving their life. They should still be allowed to race.. Why should the 2 be mutually exclusive? Of course they should also be completely honest about what they take. Hiding it would, in my view, make it ethically wrong.
I think a lot of people might not realize that testing after a major race is nice, but it's still very hard to catch the dopers because they can taper off the juice right before the event an event that they will know there is testing at and probably know that they will do well at! It seems more likely that doing more surprise out-of-season testing, and bio passports might be slightly more effective.
Lance never failed a test. All that money also means access to the latest drugs and medical advice on how to get the most from them and avoid test positives, again not so much IQ as a massive advantage in the "fight" against the testers. Lance had a lot of power, influence, and money. He could pay his doctors enough to have them exclusively advise him which reduced a lot of risk and gave him a huge advantage. Nobody wanted to have the heroic cancer warrior go down in flames so he was given a lot of leeway by the UCI and media, and he had the power to make or break the careers of lesser cyclists and journalists, which he did repeatedly.
I'd love to see someone come up with a coalition for clean sport in ultra-running. They could collect money from sponsors, athletes, and RDs. Two or 3 a year would probably be enough to catch a few people, open some eyes, and begin changing the culture of the sport, without being so often that it provides a big incentive to beat the test.
Hard to catch with regular testing when athletes are making millions and can afford doctors etc. But I'd love to see somebody do some surprise testing at your basic upper level ultra where runners feel secure because they aren't expecting to be tested. That would be very informative even if the testing were anonymous.
Some enterprising race director will do it soon…. I'd like to see that. The more testing the better! I don't understand why any top runner would dope, but it seems like doper i. Lance Armstrong do it more just for the "glory" and attention and thrill of winning rather than the actual prize money.
I've ran in races against guys that have been caught doping…makes me sick. Hi Sage, this is interesting. Is there a list of any kind available of these athletes that have been caught doping and are now active in our sport? BR, Harri. Just think about that for a minute.
You're on the start line at a major trail ultra and one in ten of the people around your are on the gear. Really important to note is that Ian lists marijuana, a drug used very commonly around the world for recreation and WADA legal in a certain dosage in training.
As someone who did take the survey, I had to answer yes because of marijuana. Which I use for recreational enjoyment, and is also legal where I live. I'm in the same boat — took the survey, and answered "yes" because of marijuana use outside of competition.
I wouldn't consider using it during a race — the spiritual high of ultras are way too awesome to mess up. But after a solid training effort, I don't see it any different than sharing a beer with friends.
Agree with that entirely Meghan, it's a great starting point but does need more depth. Also, just to add a global perspective and to remove the 'US lens' on this. Around the world, there are very differing attitudes to marajuana use something we covered in an article. So while I do applaud and support the stance of many US States in their own legalisation, along with the conditions that WADA has imposed on the use, there are some hugely different perspectives that you'll see elsewhere on it.
The survey didn't cover what they used. If they ever smoked a joint at a party during a training cycle now perfectly legal in numerous states then it qualifies. Up until caffiene was prohibited, but I would wager that it was openly used in ultrarunning. Anyone who did so should also probably have said "yes". I think it's safe to say that the prevailing attitude on the trails is that this is a clean sport, and we are far from seeing widespread PED use at the elite level.
Its a great article but the survey lacked depth. Way to generalized and only a yes or no question. Why not dive in deeper? While event testing is important, it won't catch most PED users unless they don't know what they are doing.
Out of competition testing is better since it is recovery during training where PEDs are most beneficial. You only have to look at cycling to see how easy it is to get past the tests. I know this is a whole new topic and opens a can of worms… but cycling has turned into this giant joke exactly because they actually started taking down one athlete after the other for doping. And all it did for them was turning them into this mess that no one takes seriously anymore, where every accomplishment is questioned.
But why should other sports follow suite? They just have to look at the public relations nightmare that follows every time another cyclist is caught. While testing is not perfect there are not many top cyclists who have escaped sanction through tests, or criminal investigations. They all get caught in the end. One thing testing does is make everything much more expensive and risky for ultra-runners who usually have limited budgets and limited opportunities to make a career out of running if their reputation gets damaged.
Plus the added question as to whether the effects of doping are lifelong, which some research suggests it is. Lifelong bans are the answer in my opinion. Other sports do token tests for PR purposes not for real anti doping. As more money moves into the sport there will be more incentive to dope. Other that Armstrong, mostly lower level pros are the ones who get busted, not the top guys.
With micro dosing and new drugs emerging all the time, testers can't keep up. I'm too old to compete at that level now but I have two sons who are both very athletic, I would hate it to become the norm to have to dope to become a pro level athlete, especially in MUT. Thank you for the thoughtful article. I'll confess up front that I only skimmed and plan to re-read later in detail. Two quick questions. Please correct me if I'm mistaken. Does this change how you feel about your friend's use? Should it?
Second, also from the WADA list, I see that cannabinoids are prohibited during competition but not at all times. Focusing only on ultramarathons, I've always found the case for marijuana as a PED to be very weak. The most common argument is that it gives the runner a transcendent feeling such that he can run through pain that he otherwise might not. Do you agree with this? Of course, there are other good reasons for banning it—namely safety. Thanks for your response Craig. My stab at answering your questions: 1 Correct.
This discussion with my friend was simply my introduction to a world of runners using unique using a by-product of the wood industry is odd is it not and eventually illegal substances to recover faster and perform better. Runners still use the DMSO remedy today. For some it might calm an upset stomach, calm race-ending race-day anxiety or dull the perception of pain, others get paranoid, sit down and eat, or fall asleep. It can even act as a bronchodilator. However, if you've obtained it and are using it legally in a race that has no specific PED rules, then so be it.
Thanks again, Ian. Should having a cup of morning coffee before a race or a gel with caffeine disqualify? Let he or she who has never done so throw the first stone. But there have to be some limits and fairness. More importantly, the community needs to have these kinds of direct conversations. I applaud IRF and Ian for taking on the issue. You would have to drink somewhere between cups of coffee to get disqualified for caffeine.
You can have your one cup. Also, I just looked at the WADA list that is good til the end of and caffeine is no longer on the "prohibited" list for competition but is only being "monitored" to try and detect patterns of misuse. Given that testing is expensive and ultra-running doesn't even have a governing body sanctioning most events to even establish a basic framework for testing, it seems unlikely that we will see widespread testing anytime soon in this sport. That doesn't mean there is nothing that can be done.
Every sport has a culture. In cycling there is an amazing culture of fair play regarding flat tires, accidents, bathroom breaks, etc. If you attack your competitor while he has a mechanical issue you will be heavily criticized because the sport is supposed to be about athletic performance not mechanical performance. If you do it repeatedly you may be driven out of the sport.
But cycling had the opposite culture regarding peds. It was assumed everyone was doing them and if you spoke out against it you were driven from the sport. We need to develop a culture in ultra-running of zero tolerance for dopers. That includes using coaches and coaching companies with histories of doping. Many top runners today are using Carmichael Training Systems. Chris Carmichael has a 30 year history of involvement in doping, and the athletes that pay him thousands of dollars every year are one phone call away from the guy who can give them more information about doping than anyone else in America.
That is a problem for me and I believe its a huge problem for our sport. If we expect to have any credibility we need to keep people like Carmichael far away from ultra-running. Instead the elites and the media seem to be welcoming him with open arms. I'm not sure testing is that far off — the Spanish athletics federation, for example, is starting to make noises about bringing trail running under its authority. I imagine the growing popularity of the sport in other countries will have a similar result.
It's too late to get a mountain marathon into the next Olympics, but the one after? And when that happens: testing. Ian always rights the longest darn articles. And unlike many others, I always read every word…sometimes twice.
I guess that means he is a compelling author. What about altitude tents? Living at altitude? I know a guy who gave himself an enema the night before an ultra WTF. Where does it end? There are some tactics and methods which provide an advantage and are legal…and some may even provide more of a benefit than banned drugs.
This topic is just as complicated as trying to figure out what happened to Bruce Jenner — there are just no easy answers…. I've always wondered where the altitude tents fall in the discussion as they are "artificial" in nature and used to boost oxygen levels in blood. I don't know where the line is, guessing people could argue both sides on a lot of these items.
I am not saying that means it is a 'closed case' but certainly altitude tents have been much discussed and considered by WADA. Thanks, Ian, for giving these perspectives. Say I have a cold, therefore I'm ok to take Sudafed. As the cold goes away, when exactly does my use cross over from "theraputic" to "performance enhancing?
Centiliters of snot produced? Same goes with albuterol — some people have asthma really bad all the time, and some people don't have it at all. And some people only have it under certain conditions. Some people are born with certain conditions asthma, low testosterone, etc. Should they have to make a choice "Ok, I'm going to take this medication so I can eat like a normal person, but it means I'm ineligible to compete in elite athletics.
How do you really define what's just "bringing someone up to normal? I'm glad there are people trying to define it — and that I'm a middle-of-the-pack old man so I don't have to worry about it. The TUE process isn't simply a case of coughing a bit and getting a friendly doctor to write you a note: you need a proper report, it's limited in time, etc. Boy are you right. The general subject of performance enhancement PE is not as simple as some may portray.
PE has come a loooong way since an early athlete discovered training. Seriously, to "even the playing field", or as Kurt Vonnegut put it in his writings on achieving true equality in anything, we'd need to handicap folks… no training, coke-bottle-thick lenses on the sharp-eyed, weights on the backs of the swift, loud and confusing noise from headphones on exemplary students, a sock in the mouth of a high VO2 maxer, and so on.
And, if the subject is limited to PE substances, what about hypoxic trainers or living at high elevations for altitude events? How about the use of weight management drugs? What a dilemma. Where do we draw the line? On the other hand, it seems that the use of PE's is directly proportional to the level of potential reward, that is, competition for a super bowl win or an Olympic gold medal might see a whole lot more PE stuff than a mile run for a buckle.
Of course it may never be eliminated…. One of the things I'm curious about are the degrees of improvement gained by using PED's? That kind of bump in performance would have significantly rearranged the top 10 at Western States this year, for sure…. I'm sure results vary for users, but does anyone know something of an average of performance boost expected by PED use? Blood boosters are likely less efficient as distances increase. Karl Meltzer has reported on here that his VO2 max was in the mid 50s.
But to win a 20 hour race you need more than just high oxygen throughput, you need to be smart in your training you need to stay injury free, you need to be able to digest 10, or more calories while you are running, you need to be mentally strong enough to suffer for that long. Karl has the experience and abilities to continue winning without the massive O2 throughput that Kilian has.
Cycling coaches in the past looked not only for the fastest amateurs but amateurs who were fast while still having low hematocrit numbers because they had the efficiency and mental toughness required to win and would improve the most once put on a blood-boosting program. EPO is not outrageously expensive or hard to get, a nurse or pharmacist even a receptionist at medical practice could snare some easy. So, months pre race take it, and be 'clean' for the race, with a huge boost to your O2 carrying capacity and no real risk to your health.
I would be more surprised if it was NOT happening that if it was, even at the high end. Where can I get it. I've wanted to try it for a while and see the difference and blog about it. It's not a joke. Can you just go ask a Dr? I want to see how it works for an average person, middle aged.
Mate, you would have to get EPO on the sly, sorry to disappoint. I have just worked in medical practices where we keep it in the fridge along with the vaccines and other meds etc, not exactly under lock and key. If someone was motivated to do it, I'm sure they could. Personally I'm not.
The problem is, you take it too far and you drop dead from clotting problems and can develop antibodies to the EPO, which makes you transfusion dependant the rest of your life, joy-joy. Nobody can evade the first law of thermodynamics.
All I mean is, a pharmacist with motivation to get hold of some EPO via a script double order, missing stock, you name it, could easily and cheaply get a vial of EPO. It's not crack, its a legal drug dispensed regularly for serious chronic illness. Same for almost any other PED. If Ultra runners want to believe the sport is 'clean' I would think a blanket test of the whole field at any ultra race across the world would immediately reverse that opinion.
Mulholland — Thanks for your post. I'll just note, for the record, that our WSER winner no longer works in the pharmacy business. It's really difficult to draw the line as to what constitutes an unfair advantage.
What I think is sad, is why we even need to have this discussion. Can't we all just be good people and follow the rules? It blows my mind to think of how one could feel good about winning if they cheated. Doesn't that defeat the purpose? I often see it justified by monetary incentives, but I still don't get it. I am not motivated by money.
The reason I run and I hope many others is to push my personal limits. I love the feeling I get from finding my edge, then pushing past it. Taking something to enhance my threshold seems to defeat the purpose. I understand that performance is a big part of why we run. I do my very best to prepare myself for competitions and you better believe I am going to push my body as hard as I can.
THAT is why we race…is it not? Does the external result matter as much? I like to think not. Sure it's nice to win, but isn't it even better when you cross the finish line after an epic battle with yourself? I don't get it. I understand that sponsorships and prize money from winning races are a big motivator for some, but I don't see that as a valid reason to cheat. Most sponsors I know want to support good, genuine individuals- not win at all cost athletes.
I'm a bit naive, and I know someday I'll probably be heartbroken, but until then I'll give the benefit of the doubt to be my fellow athletes. Commenting on the "grey area" for use of substances for medicinal vs performance…. I think it all comes back to being a good person. We KNOW when we are using something because we need it vs because we "need" it. Yes, I take advil when I have a headache.
But would I take it during a race if it would help delay some muscle pain…. Why not? Because that is part of racing. My legs are going to hurt. I trust that others will do the same too. Because I think like that it's simple to separate the two. The grey area is not so grey. Testing may help keep drug use at bay by fear factor, but I think it's less than ideal. I shutter the thought about being on the whereabouts list and having to give my location in 1 hour increments every single day. And my conclusion is that it's not very effective.
Almost good enough to be elite, but not quite. They've had a taste of getting close to that level and they desperately want to get there. But they aren't winning races, so they won't be tested. That's a total generalization, but I think that's where I'd spend some more time testing. It all comes back to being a good person though.
If you think it might be wrong, then it probably is and you shouldn't do it. Just think back to being a 4 year old on the playground- you have more friends if you are nice, fair, and play clean. And if that's not enough, then one word: Karma. Great to hear your comments Stephanie! I agree that I think I too am a little naive and think that most of my fellow competitors in North America at the front of the pack of ultras are clean, maybe they are, maybe they're not?
I am totally with you on personal satisfaction being my 1 motivator to perform well at running and clearly if I used PEDs that would remove any personal satisfaction as I would know I have cheated. However I've also had a taster of other nationalities with other mindsets who I guess don't have the same moral compass and outlook re PEDs as I think most North American top level ultra runners have.
To sit at a table post Two Oceans in and drink a celebratory glass of wine with my Nedbank team mate and winner, Natalia Volgina, and then to find out she failed doping control — by bubble burst big time and my eyes were opened. I really think such nationality based generalizations are unnecessary and offensive. There are honest people and dishonest people. I have to agree — look at the doping scandals in baseball, athletics and cycling and it's hard to conclude that US athletes are less likely to be doping that others.
What if you woke up the morning of Western States and had a headache, would you take some Advil knowing that it will be in your system for hours? I think it's a bit naive to say that if you view this a certain way there is no grey area. As far as karma goes, I couldn't agree more. Out of context dude. What I meant is that we KNOW the difference between taking something because you need it vs taking something as a performance enhancement.
I didn't mean it literally. Apologize for reading too much into that statement. At a personal level, you are exactly right and that's a great way to look at it. I just didn't read your post that way. I was under the impression that a lot of runners routinely take some painkillers during races to alleviate pains in various body parts, and normal painkillers are not listed by WADA among the banned substances. Thanks and best regards, Harri.
I should have used an arbitrary example, such as "pixie stix" instead of an actual drug. If you need them, use them! My point was just that we know when we are taking a substance that we need vs. Legal substances that is. Stephanie, at your level of running you can bet you are racing dopers.
Dope is too easy to get and too hard to catch with the limited resources in the ultra world. Indeed, I know some in Europe who view doping as part of game. Thus, they rationalize doping as not cheating; this is what Armstrong did in the Oprah interview, redefining "cheating" to mean that it is acceptable to break the rules if others are doing so.
Unfortunately, projecting your morals on those without morals — or those with different cultures or value systems — is an exercise in frustration. Good luck in your training an racing — give 'em hell! Agree, money isn't always the driver… narcissism and sociopathic behaviour are big contributors I'd say… it's a societal thing….
Great approach and discussion with a definite hot button issue!! Thanks for writing this, Ian! Personally, I think Western States would be a great place to start testing! It's already considered the Super Bowl of 's! On top of that, they already collect and test blood samples! How much more would it take to look for banned PED's Are they secretly doing this anyway? I would, just out of curiosity! Heck, if they announced testing the lottery would probably be easier!!
Without an ultra running governing body the only sanctions would be public opinion! I think Stephanie Howe nailed it above: Karma! Again out of context. I didn't mean any disrespect by this comment. Lots of anti-aging clinics prescribe DHEA and testosterone, and it sounds like she really had low testosterone. But still, in my opinion, she should have known better than to compete.
I dated a lady several years back who had been taking testosterone since going through menopause. She was a mountain biker but got into running. She had also been a natural athlete all her life both parents had been pro athletes but not very competitive. She signed up for a few races with me and unlike me, was pretty dominant, even beating all the men several years ago in a race that is now part of the US Skyrunning series.
I know she was taking the testosterone for medical reasons. She never even would have raced if I hadn't encouraged her, and she certainly had some natural ability, but I always wondered how much she benefited from the testosterone.
Fortunately, despite her success, she didn't really like racing so it never became a moral dilemma for me, except when she continually dropped me on our training runs…. This was a very interesting case. Her doctor recommended DHEA available on supermarket shelfs for her terribly low hormonal levels; as a single and working mother of three she really needed something to hold it all together.
All studies categorically state DHEA has no performance benefit. The Rules were created to level the playing field for elite and professional runners; a working mother got roped in. Running is supposed to improve your health, not worsen it, so I hope she continues to take care of herself first. If there was not an advantage it would not be on the banned list. There is a good thread over on LetsRun. If you are going to compete at the highest level in masters competition, you should know what is allowed and what is not.
The side effects were not worth any benefits on the quality of life side of things. I had blurred vision, rapid heart rate, leg cramps, couldn't sleep. This was on a low level dose of 3mg a day. On the running side, I could not tell much a difference. I did not compete when I was trying it either, just during the off season. There is good reason why we lose testosterone as we age, it is because our system cannot handle the increased stress these type of drugs allow us to attain.
We end up with a stroke, a heart attack, or other injury from pushing the system too hard too long. Hey, we all get lower levels as we age, it is a part of the process. Coffee works for me, and it is allowed by the rules!
And I can sleep well on a victory too. I've done several drugs during races to help with my Plantar Fasciitis. I did even more when I was a professional wrestler…but that was just for fun. Drugs are how I stayed awake driving city to city with the Iron Sheik. I could go on and on. None of it helped my running, I did change shoes and went from a 8mm drop to 4mm drop and let me tell you I went from the back of the pack to just above that.
I've never been tested since most of the testers went home long after I crossed the finishline. Take it for what it worth but I would never suggest running an ultra on acid. It is scary. Sergio Motsoeneng, , Comrades [Banned substance ]— Was also DQed in for running the race relay style with his identical twin brother. The competitive part of me doesn't care about PEDs in trail races.
I'm not elite, never will be, and don't gauge my success or fortify my ego based on how I perform vs. When my ego gets involved in races it's purely from an internal standpoint — finding my own walls, and hopefully finding a way through them without PEDs. As an avid fan of the sport, I have a harder time with PEDs as they pertain to elites.
For the elite performances in elite races to really mean anything from a fan perspective, there has to be a level of integrity there, right? Per the article, Comrades is already doing this. Is New Balance, Nike, etc. Sure, there will always be cheaters cheating the tests as well, but the honor system is a bit naive, IMO.
I hope this isn't gatecrashing the party — if it is, please do remove the comment irunfar — have no issues if you do. But this article gave me an idea to test this further and build on what Ian has done. I've set-up a very short two-minute survey to understand a little more about drug use in our sport or not! No hidden agenda here ort personal gain to be had, just purely interested in what's going on. Great Article. Just in the case of Mamabolo at Comrades.
The substance that was found in his system actually comes from a Supplement that he used, which is commonly used by Body Builders etc and can be purchased at any pharmacy etc. But it just goes to show that now days as a professional athlete you have to always check on the ingredients of any supplement that you use to make sure it does not contain any banned substances. No Comrades dont do any out of competition testing.
It has been suggested that Comrades contenders are tested prior to the race so that come race day contenders should know the competitors are all clean for what its worth and then do an additional test after the race.
There is pretty much no out of competition testing done in SA — to the best of my knowledge. In my opinion it is vital that if out of competition testing is done then it is always by a national anti doping authority and not by an individual race, strict protocols need to be adhered to to ensure athlete safety from contaminated samples etc and I personally would not have confidence in individual races to have the set up to do this.
Great article! Next article suggestion: trail runner gossip after 3 IPAs. Very timely article with the king of doping in the latest Trail Runner magazine. If we want to be serious about PED's in ultrarunning, known and notorious drug cheats should never be given press and those who try should be shamed enough for it to never happen again.
I've always had a moment of pause before a large race wondering who is using PED. I think ultrarunning, in the amateur sense of the sport ie, running for the joy of it, not for money tends to mitigate the potential problem. However, i think the root issue is not that grey area of use of medications for legitimate ailments, I think comprehensive exemptions exist. The root issue is that decision that we all face when we "come upon" that dollar bill on the ground and you suspect it fell out of the pocket of that person hiking up ahead on the trail… or the tax credit you know you can fudge and get away with some extra cash.
Our character is not measured by what others see, but when no one is around. Also, consider that example, happening upon the Benjamin Franklin on your own and your own decision process as to what to do, or if you happened to see other people around you finding bills on the ground and grabbing as many as they could hold in their fists.
We've come to know tragically that in pro and even amateur cycling PED use has become rampant, part of the unspoken culture that permits and even encourages use. When you begin to compete at a certain level and your peers begin to visit a specific doctor or trainer and their results improve dramatically i think people generally will tend to say "I want a piece of that pie too! I love the rag tag tumbly culture of Ultrarunning that I've experienced here in the US, i think it naturally insulates itself to the seriousness that other sports tend to lend themselves, it also becomes a much more welcoming place to practice a sport that most people consider appalling and awe inspiring all at once.
I can't speak of other locales and their relationship to PED, haven't run in Spain my birth country or other European countries. While I don't think people are more propense to cheat than others, I think that PED use culture can grow and fester in a sporting community if there is no discussion about it, and if the amateur ranks of the sports aren't healthy.
And i think it's at the junior and amateur levels where this needs to be rooted out. Obviously, high school football or college football will always have a larger draw towards a successful and lucrative career athlete than the desire to run miles under 15 hours. The quicker the rate of high-impact respiration, the higher the level at which the competitor can work without using the anaerobic frameworks which deliver lactic acid and increase weakness.
This is useful for athletes, since red blood cells shuttle oxygen to the cells, including muscle cells, enabling them to operate more effectively. The study was undertaken by infusing long distance runners with EPO every other day for a month. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! When recombinant human erythropoietin rEPO was made available in the late s, it did not take long for the athletic world to recognize the positive effects of the drug.
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A new testing technique for EPO is also in the pipeline. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. The blood that was rich in oxygen was then harvested from the body exactly as one would donate blood. Pros: 1. An understanding of List of the Pros of Doping in Sports. EPO Erythropoietin , its advantages and disadvantages for endurance athletes.
Complete the topic within 20 minutes. For the purposes of this essay an understanding of what EPO Erythropoietin is will be established. Write a word essay. It has been proved that sport is good for preventions and as a therapy in case of some diseases. After winning the and meter races at the World Championships. Sports, on the other hand, have enjoyed a much longer history and a more storied tradition. However, many fail to realize coaches treat scholarship dollars like a paycheck.
The oxygen rich blood was then transfused back into the body at sea level prior to or during competition. Sports Pros Cons; Sports Pros. Put simply, athletes who harness the power of EPO can go harder for longer. An understanding of how EPO works in the body will also be established. Its use in competitive sport was first brought to the public's attention during the Tour de France, where the entire Festina team was disqualified after several hundred doses of EPO and other doping products were found in the team car.
Info: words 6 pages Essay Back to school means back to sports for many Hoosier students. They can become addictive. So, that being said, here's the main pros and cons of daily driving a sports car. It allows for an increase in Vo2 max and power output. As the debate for legalizing sports betting continues to be in hot water today, it is undeniably practiced in some states where sports betting is legal. There are multiple positives and negatives when it comes to daily driving a sports car.
These may include: the home and awayteams scores, penalties, possession, passes, areas of attack, scoring attempts, shot accuracy etc.
The report does not state if the subjects were Scottish or Ethiopian, or a mix, but it seems most likely they were Scottish. However, the current report made no mention of any such testing or test results. This could account for health issues heart attacks suffered by some alleged EPO users.
It would also imply that EPO-using athletes need to boost their plasma volume if they participate in events where potential dehydration plays an important role. Trail Running. United States. Type keyword s to search. Today's Top Stories. So we'll basically But then also look at some of the side effects of some of these performance enhancing drugs and then we'll just wrap it up in a nice little package. And again, I'm not gonna touch the ethics on this one if I can help it.
So let's look at the first one, and this is EPO. Now, EPO is a protein in the body that increases red blood cells. Now, by itself, EPO is not gonna elevate red blood cell count substantially, but what scientists have done or dopers have done is figured out a way how to increase EPO in the body. And what EPO does again is it increases red blood cell count, and as we all know or may not know, the more red blood cells that you have, the more oxygen that gets delivered to your working muscles.
So more oxygen equals being able to run, ride faster, longer, stronger without getting fatigued as quickly. Now, what the dopers have done in the past is they've done blood transfusions to increase the amount of EPO in their body, but there are also drugs out there that are synthesized that can also do the same thing. But the point being is EPO increases red blood cell count, red blood cells carry more oxygen to working muscles and that's where you get the benefits of EPO.
But EPO isn't without side effects, especially in warm, hot conditions, and if you aren't hydrating, and if you're doping with EPO or blood doping, your blood can turn to sludge and kill you. So, you just got to really weigh, you know, is EPO really worth the tradeoff of death. And I'd say, no. So that is EPO. Now, when you think of this, you probably think more of like the bodybuilder who's beating their chest and getting jacked and swole in the gym and going on roid ragers.
Usually don't associate testosterone steroids with endurance athletes, and it's for opposite reasons really why some endurance athletes choose to dope with testosterone. And this basically is why when an athlete takes testosterone or steroids, it basically speeds up the recovery process substantially, so the athlete can train harder and harder day after day after day.
Like think about doing intervals day after day after day and the amazing adaptations that could happen if you're recovering quicker. So that's really the reason why the athletes will do that, and the mechanism by which testosterone works is it reduces muscle protein breakdown. But it also, interestingly enough, can increase red blood cell count too, like the EPO.
So when you put the EPO together, the testosterone together, you can see why that combination is appealing to all these guys that are doping. But like EPO, testosterone has certain side effects. Then that's say, you know, balding, big man boobies, your balls shrinking, possible liver damage and liver shutdown if you do like oral steroids. So again, are those performance enhancements worth all those side effects happening, I don't think so.
I mean, to me it's just it would not be worth it. So that's just a quick glimpse at EPO and testosterone, how they work from a physiological's perspective and how they can enhance performance but also the side effects. So let's just wrap this up and I'm gonna tell you a little bit of a back story or something I heard a long time ago.
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I don't think that aspect it will always be hard to Physical Fitness Chat so. PARAGRAPHResults should be positive. So can you win clean. When you go and exercise questions about drug use and on performance. Post as a guest Name. See Should we allow academic for the effect of drugs. See also: Drugs work - as making the work easier. But in the current generation, it seems that more advanced we seem to be talking blood doping are the choice of dopers. That's one of the big debates in anti doping as well, if you dope for X years and are off for Y years, how much extra benefit because of the work you DID put in during doping still lingers. I'll move my comment to.Mar. 20, — EPO use in humans is believed to sometimes result in blood which has “I think this potentially provides an investigative tool to run some facts I stopped betting the horses 15 years ago because of this element in the sport. Apr. 14, — Tests for human use of EPO were not developed until , though bet the horse big and they'd win easily, take them off EPO drop back down and She won't run him if the track even looks slightly bad at the risk of injury. Solution: EPO-Boost increases running economy. If you're petering out during training, you can bet that your next event isn't going to go so well. It's the only supplement on the market that naturally increases EPO and endurance.