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Accessibility help. Email or phone Password Forgotten account? See more of L A Horsesupplies on Facebook. Log In. Forgotten account? Not Now. Visitor Posts. These cases are charac- terized by a more or less considerable fall in TV concentration. Curves for urine and respiratory exchange. N per hour concentration only 0. Corresponding instances of a decrease in N excretion from lack of water characterized by a fall in the excretion of water and N and a considerable rise in con- centration are also present exp.

Ill B. In a number of instances on the other hand we have an increase in concentration along with an increase in the total quantity of ni- trogen excreted. In these cases the rise in N excretion must be the primary factor which involves also an increase in diuresis. The ni- LI. The highest con- centration observed by us is 2.

The most conspicuous feature of the curves is the fall in ex- cretion taking place during the first 5 — 6 hours of the nights after Fig. After carbo- hydrates we find nothing of this, the excretion both of water and N being fairly uniform night and day see exp.

They did not drink anything during the night, and it can easily be demonstrated from the respiration curves that they really slept again from about 4 to about 6. The values for the 8 hours from 10 — 6 at night see table 6, p. Fredericq thinks that the rise may be produced by the custom of having a morning meal at a certain hour.

Rosemann however gives the same explanation as we have accepted as the most probable viz. In our experiments any influence of habitual morning meals is excluded, as it is not custo- mary for the Eskimos to take food in the morning, and the rise more- over took place during the last hours of the sleep and at a time when the subjects would usually be asleep.

In table 4 are shown 24 hour values for volume of urine and N excretion. These figures have been calculated from the determinations made by means of Esbachs hypobromite method. The reagent 1 Pfl. Festband f. Hamburger, , Oversigter By employing a reagent with 1 cc. The oxidation is so feeble that almost the whole of the nitrogen is liberated as gas while a small part of the carbon is oxidized to CO instead of CO2. Table 4, Excretion of urine and nitrogen in 24 hour periods.

Of the other nitrogenous compounds present in urine some will react with hypobromite and yield gaseous nitrogen while others will not. In accordance with the fact that only part of the nitrogen is libe- rated from urine by hypobromite we find by comparison of the Kjel- 1 Creatine gives Hippuric acid, amino acids and polypeptides do not yield any gaseous nitrogen. Kjeldahl N. Table 5 shows the relations between the nitrogen excretion and the ratio is diminished on the 5 shows the r Kjeldahl N EsBACH N on the separate days examined.

Table 5. Date Subject Total nitrogen gr. S, The reasons for adopting this estimate are given in the paper quoted above, but it is obvious that since the relative quantities of these different substances is not quite constant the estimate can only be approximative. The excretion of "endogenous" nitrogen is found to vary between 2 gr.

The respiratory exchange. Curves representing the respiratory exchange for the two sub- jects taken together and each period of the experiments are shown in figs. For exp. The oxygen has therefore been cal- culated for 8 hour periods only. The curves give very little definite information but show the general character of the variations in metabolism. We find low and fairly constant values for the hours of the night from 10 to 6.

In the day time there are large and irregular variations due partly to the intake of food partly to muscular movements. We had hoped to be able to obtain some information about the movements by let- ting the subjects wear pedometers and reading these at the end of each period, but the results were very unsatisfactory. There appeared to be no relation whatever between the indications of the pedometers and the metabolism found. We are inclined to think that the sub- jects have used the pedometers as convenient playthings.

The respiratory quotient varies on the whole regularly in accor- dance with the nature of the food taken, being high 0. Sudden deviations from the level curve in the opposite direction have not been noticed. We have selected the hours from 10 to 6 at night, 6 — 2 in the forenoon and 2 — 10 in the afternoon as corre- sponding as closely as possible with the changes in activity of the subjects and the hours at which the changes in diet should' make themselves felt on the excretions and metabolism.

During the hours from 10 — 6 the subjects were in almost all cases asleep or at least lying down, and at 2 in the afternoon the efi'ect of the food taken du- ring the forenoon would generally begin to appear. Metabolism in 8 hour periods both subjects together. From the data of the respiratory exchange com- bined with the nitrogen excretion we have calculated further the total metabolism in accordance with the principles laid down by Zuntz.

We have assumed that the protein corresponding to the N found in the urine is completely catabolized during each 8 hour period pro- ducing After deducing the oxygen and 40 August Krogh and Marie Krogh. CO2, corresponding to the protein catabolism from the totals for these gases we have calculated the R.

ZuNTz's table covers only the respiratory quotients between 0. II that the respiratory quotient of the non protein metabolism rose above unity indicating a formation of fat from carbohydrate. In these cases we have extrapolated the caloric values of the oxygen from ZuNTz' table, but we are fully aware that the resulting figures for total metabohsm cannot be very accurate.

Table 7 shows the average intake of calories with the food and the corresponding metabolism and N excretion per day for each sub- ject. The food is calculated for days Table 7. Energy balance in reckoned from midnight to midnight and 24 hour periods. The figures for catabolic heat production and excre- tion of N are for days reckoned from 2 p.

II the food has on all days been in excess of the requirements 2. Ill there has been an excess only on the first day, and in exp. IV the food has on all days been insufficient. The metabolism is low in all cases as might be expected from the confinement and the small amount of muscular work done. The production of heat is lower in exp. II than in exp.

IV in the same subjects in spite of the abundant food in the former exp,, but this is easily explicable from the difference in work per- formed. There is no clear evidence in the figures for 24 hours meta- bolism of any specific dynamic action of the protein in the diet. When we consider the separate 8 hour periods we find fairly low and uniform figures for the metabolism during the 8 hours when the subjects were asleep or at all events generally lying down and at- tempting to sleep.

Calories Calories in food produced N in urine. Physiologie, , p II the resp. IV the amount of food taken on the first day is not exactly known. It has exceeded Cal. II: 1. Ill: 1. IV: 1. During exp. II the subjects slept for shorter hours from 11 in- stead of 10 than in exp. IV, which explains the somewhat higher metabolism, while the two subjects employed in exp. Ill would appear to possess normally a higher basal metabolism "Grundumsatz".

During the hours of the day the metabolism is of course much more variable but we find in almost all cases lower values for the fore- noon 6 — 2 than for the afternoon 2 — The mean for all sub- jects and the hours 6 — 2 is 1.

II the excess of food led to a production of fat as evidenced by the rise of the respiratory quotient of the non protein metabolism above unity. It is of some interest to note that the quotient did not rise above unity during the first and second day when an excess of carbohydrate was given, but only during the latter half of the third day when the diet consisted chiefly of protein and fat.

The respira- tory exchange of this day taken as a whole indicates apart from the protein catabolized an intake of 1. This would indicate probably that the quotient for the pro- tein catabolized had not really been 0. Ill and IV the respiratory quotients do not present any peculiarities which would allow definite conclusions to be drawn.

The specific dynamic action of the food cannot be quantitatively measured in our experiments but on the point of the specific dynamic action of the protein inferences of some interest may be drawn. The production of heat per kg. IV we find the lowest figure 1. With regard to the dynamic action of the protein it must be borne in mind that in all our experimental periods the TV excretion is high compared with what is usual for civilized people, while in some it is excessive lowest value for 8 hours and both subjects 9.

N and highest We can only study therefore the influence of an excessive catabolization of protein as compared with one which is already considerable. An inspection of the figures in table 6 shows that the influence cannot be estimated from individual periods because the production of heat has been too varied under the influence of other factors mus- cular movements etc. In order to get a result it is necessary to treat the material statistically. We have done this by first reducing the heat produced during each period to a common standard of rest.

For each experiment and each group of corresponding periods we have calculated the mean production of heat per kg. The means for each group and the corresponding mean errors of the heat production have been computed. S1 G In each group how- ever one figure deviates more than double the mean error from the A Study of the Diet and Metabolism of Eskimos. If these are excluded according to the usual rules i and if we exclude further the periods in which the resp.

Reduced metabolism Calories N in urine gr. Reduced metabolism Calories N in the urine or 8. This figure for the specific dynamic action of nitrogen is remarkably low, and if we attempt a calculation from the night values alone we find it lower still. We do not think it advisable, however, to draw far reaching conclusions from the result.

These writers have, with a technique far superior to ours, studied the metaboUsm in short consecutive periods in a dog after much meat and also after the administration of individual amino acids. They have demonstrated clearly a retention of carbon from protein in the form of carbohydrate, and they find further that in the dog the ingestion of meat or certain amino acids causes a very considerable rise in the total metabolism by stimulating the catabolic activity of the organism.

The normal diet of Eskimos contains an excessive amount of animal protein gr. Their dietary habits are vey like those of the carnivorous animals. The diet does not appear to have any injurious effects whatever upon the people. They are capable of prolonged work and extremely enduring with regard to cold and hardships. Uric acid diseases are very rare among them if they occur at all. In our feeding experiments made under absolute control within the respiratory chamber we observed a maximum intake on one day of gr.

The large quantities of meat are well absorbed and utilized by the Eskimos. The loss of nitrogen in the feces amounts to 3 — 5 gr. The maximum quantity of nitrogen found in the urine of one day was 53 gr. The urine curves show very distinctly the interdependence of nitrogen and water excretion.

During the nights after much meat there is a retention of nitrogen and also of water until about 4 in the morning but the quantity retained is excreted in bulk during the next two to three hours. In this case we have undoubtedly a retention of urea owing to decreased functional activity of the kidneys. N determined in 24 hour periods.

The variations in "endogenous" nitrogen are small from 2 to 4 gr. The respiratory exchange as determined in our experiments varies irregularly during the day but is always higher during the afternoon from 2 to 10 than during the forenoon 6 — 2. During the night it is almost constant and practically independent of the A Study of the Diet and Metabolism of Eskimos. The metaboHsm during sleep per kg. The specific dynamic action of the protein catabolized has been cal- culated from all the 8 hour periods taken in two groups and works out as 8.

According to our experiments the Eskimos would appear therefore to be able to retain a large amount of protein for a certain period exceeding 24 hours and to utilize it as a source of energy with very little loss. Tables showing composition of feces, excretion of urine and nitrogen, heat of combustion of some urines and data of respiration experiments.

Table I. Analyses of feces. Experiment I: M. Not enough material for Experiment II ; A. Experiment IV ; A. Fresh weight gr. Il I 1. Il i 1. Table II. Excretion of urine and nitrogen. Table II continued. Ol 0- e a:d! Heat of combustion of some Eskimo urines. Table IV. Ven- tila- tion cb. Krogh and M, Table IV continued.

Air from Air from 'i -0 TD Ven- tila- tion cb. Outside air chamber continous Tp. This investigation is the first of a series of investigations of the animal life of the fjords of Greenland and consequently is of very great interest. Previous expeditions have usually kept to rather shallow water or confined themselves to making scattered dredgings in deeper water; the Ingolf Expedition during the two summers — 96 had to investigate as far as possible all Greenland waters, and therefore naturally was not able to devote its attention to a single area.

The Tjalfe Expedition of — 09 was confident that it had proved that the fjords of southern Greenland could be divided into two groups, viz. Last summer the Commission did me the honour of sending me to Greenland to investigate some fjords of the Atlantic type ; as exam- ples of such. Kvanefjord near Frederikshaab and Bredefjord and Skovfjord between Ivigtut and Julianehaab were chosen. Bredefjord, owing to its greater depth above metres , especially proved to be extremely interesting; an account of the results will probably soon be published.

Stephensen, But there are yet other Greenland fjords, the investigation of which will unquestionably yield very interesting results; first and foremost, Umanak Fjord which, although it is situated 5 degrees of latitude north of the ridge in Davis Strait yet, according to the Tjalfe Expedition, has bottom water of a temperature above freezing point.

The most interesting investigation will, however, be that of the great depth in Baffin Bay, as it is a vexed question, how far the fauna there is Arctic or Atlantic. The present paper deals with 70 species in all. In the following list the figures before the names of the species indicate the number allot- ted to each species. Two species are new to science, viz, Monstrilla Wandelii. In addition to these, the following eight species are new to Green- land: — Orchomenella pinguis, Metopa leptocarpa, Podocerus pusillus, Balanus Hameri, 51, Lepas anatifera, 56, Centropages hamatus, 60, Ameira sp.

Amphiascus Giesbrechtii. Moreover, the following species should be noted, regarding whose distribution in Greenland only very little was known previously, 1 b, Brachyura larva Hyas coarctatus? Spirontocaris microceros, Haploops setosa, Paraduhchia typica, Mesidothea Sabinei, Janthe libbeyi, Nebalia bipes, Pseudocalanus elongatus adult and Copepodites , 57, Acartia longiremis, 70, Diaptomus minutus. Account of the Crustacea and the Pycnogonida. List of the stations and of tiie Crustacea from each station.

A, Benthos. Depth 41—21 m. Hyas coarctatus 1 spec. Eupagurus pubescens 1 spec. Spirontocaris spinus 2 spec. Opisa Eschriohtii 2 spec. Ampelisca macrocephala 1 spec. Haploops setosa 35 spec. Paradulichia typica 1 spec. Herpyllobius arcticus 1 spec. Balanus porcatus 3 spec. Eupagurus pubescens 2 spec.

Spirontocaris spinus 1 spec. Aristias tumidus 4 spec. Haploops setosa 8 spec. Melita dentata 1 spec. Podocerus latipes 4 spec. Parapleustes pulchellus 2 spec. Spirontocaris groenlandica 1 spec. Aristias tumidus 2 spec. Eupagurus pubescens 4 spec. Spirontocaris Gaimardii 3 spec. Metopa pollexiana 12 spec. Stegocephalus inflatus 1 spec. Acanthozone cuspidata 1 spec.

Metopa leptocarpa 1 spec. Janthe libbeyi 1 spec. Balanus Hameri 1 spec. Balanus porcatus 9 spec. Pseudopallene circularis 1 spec. Acanthonotosoma serratum 1 spec. Haploops tubicola 4 spec. Nectocrangon lar 1 spec. Sclerocrangon boreas 1 spec.

Haploops setosa 1 spec. Spirontocaris Fabricii 1 spec. Nectocrangon lar 5 spec. Nectocrangon lar 2 spec. Anonyx nugax 1 spec. Nebalia bipes 10 spec. Balanus crenatus 4 spec. Diastylis scorpioides 1 spec. Aristias tumidus 25 spec. Anonyx lagena 2 spec.

Paroediceros lynceus 3 spec. Diastylis scorpioides 4 spec. Nebalia bipes 1 spec. Nectocrangon lar 4 spec. Rhoda Raschii 2 spec. Haploops tubicola about 50 spec. Orchomenella pinguis 1 spec. Haploops setosa 16 spec. Unciola leucopis 65 spec. Erichthonius megalops 4 spec. Eudorella emarginata 2 spec. Gammarus locusta 22 spec. Mesidothea Sabinei 1 spec. Balanus balanoides about 20 spec.

Mesidothea Sabinei 4 spec. Pontoporeia femorata 1 spec. Mesidothea Sabinei 15 spec. Spirontocaris Gaimardii 1 spec. Haploops tubicola 18 spec. Eupagurus pubescens 7 spec. Balanus porcatus 2 spec. Spirontocaris spinus 3 spec. Eupagurus pubescens 6 spec. Eupagurus pubescens 3 spec.

Acanthozone hystrix 2 spec. Socarnes bidenticulatus 1 spec. Spirontocaris Gaimardii 2 spec. Sabinea septemcarinata 1 spec. Nectocrangon lar 3 spec. Nymphon serratum 1 spec. Spirontocaris Fabricii 3 spec Haploops tubicola 1 spec. Diastylis scorpioides 9 spec.

Haploops tubicola 16 spec. Ischyrocerus anguipes 14 spec. Caprella septentrionalis 8 spec. Gammarus locusta, between high- Balanus crenatus about 20 spec, and low-water marks, about 10 sp. Between St. Brachyura larva same species as that recorded from the Tjalfe Ex- pedition ; a few spec, see p.

Pseudocalanus elongatus, adult and Copepodites. Nauplii Pseudocalanus elongatus : Copepo- dites. Pseudocalanus elongatus, both adult and Copepodites ; numerous. Calanus finmarchicus ; a few. Pseudocalanus elongatus ; numer. Ameira sp. Acartia longiremis, some spec. Centropages hamatus Cirripedia: Cypris stages and Nau- plii. A few scarcely determinable Cope- poda. Calanus fin,marchicus; a few. Amphiascus Giesbrechtii, 1 spec. Monstrilla Wandelii n.

Cirripede Nauplii. Pseudocalanus elongatus ; Cope- podites. Pseudocalanus elongatus ; a few Copepodites. Metridia longa; a few. Nauplii ; numerous. Metridia longa ; a few. A few Nauplii. Metridia longa, 20 — 30 spec. Girripede Nauplii. Pseudocalanus elongatus ; a few Gopepodites. Steenstrup's apparatus A few Nauplii, or else no specimens.

Galanus hyperboreus, 1?. Metridia longa, about Some hardly full-grown about 1 mm. Some Nauplii. Pseudocalanus elongatus ; many Metridia longa ; a few. Surface, two hours Steenstrup's appa- ratus sunshine, 6 p. Girripedia: Gypris stages and Nau- plii. Pseudocalanus elongatus, Gope- podites. Acartia longiremis ; numerous. Girripede Nauplii and Gyprides. Other Nauplii. List of the Species. Only in connection with those species which have not previously been recorded from Greenland, or where other circumstances make it desirable, will any references to literature be made.

New, or in other ways interesting, species are marked with x. Hyas coarctatus Leach. X Brachyurid-larva Hyas coarctattis Leach? In the place above cited I mention that it greatly resembles the larva of Hyas araneus, from which it differs, however, in some respects.

Nord- mann's collections only contain specimens of the one species, Hyas coarctatus, and as both the other species are larger forms, it is inconceiv- able that they should not have been included in his material if they really occur in the fjord. True, the larva was found at the mouth of the fjord, so that it is possible that the specimens originated from adult crabs from Baffin Bay; but yet I think, on account of the close resem- blance to the larva of Hyas araneus, that there is little doubt that the larva in question is that of Hyas coarctatus.

Eupagurus pubescens Kr. Ispec; St. Sclerocrangon boreas Phipps. Sabinea septemcarinata Sabine. Nectocrangon lar Owen. Spirontocaris Fabricii Kr. Spirontocaris Gaimardii M. Spirontocaris polaris Sabine. Spirontocaris groenlandica J. Spirontocaris spinus Sow. Spirontocaris microceros Kr. Hansen's list from , p. Since the publication of H. Hansen's paper it has not been found by any Danish or any foreign expedition, until now that it has been taken in N.

As, according to its last habitat, it appears to be a coast-form Dr. Nordmann obtained it from a depth of 40 — 20 metres; in connection with the specimens previously known nothing is stated regarding the depth it is very strange that so little is known regarding its distribution. Rhoda Raschii M. Diastylis scorpioides Lepech.

Diastylis Rathkei Kr. Eudorella emarginata Kr. Socarnes bidenticulatus Bate. Anonyx lagena Kr. Orchomenella pinguis A. Anonyx pinguis A. Boeck, Forhandh 8. Orchomene pinguis, — Skand. Sars, Account, vol. New to Greenland. Norway, Malangenfjord in Finmark and Mediterranean Stebbing, 1. Opisa Eschrichtii Kr.

Pontoporeia femorata Kr. Metopa leptocarpa G. Sars, Oversigt af Norges Crust. Sars writes 1. It was collected, many years ago, at Christianssund, west coast of Norway, from a depth of 60 — 80 fathoms. Out of Norway, it has not yet been recorded. The specimen agrees exactly with Sars's description and figures.

Metopa pollexiana Bate. Paroediceros lynceus M. Parapleustes pulchellus G. Acanthonotosoma serratiim 0. Acanthozone hystrix Kr. Gammarus locusta L. Melita dentata Kr. Ampelisca macrocephala Lillj. St, 1. Haploops setosa Boeck. This species appears otherwise to be rather rare in Greenland. Haploops tubicola Lillj. Podocerus Ischyrocerus anguipes Kr. Ischyrocerus latipes Kr.

Podocerus pusillus G. Boeck, Skand. Jassa pusilla Stebbing, Tierreich, , p. Norway 37— m. Erichthonlus megalops G. Unciola leucopis Kr. Paradulichia typica Boeck. This otherwise rather rare species has previously been found only once in Greenland, viz. Caprella septentrionalis Kr. Mesidothea Sabinei Kr. These loca- lities are of great interest, the species previously having been known only from four localities in West Greenland not from East Greenland. Arcturus Baffin!

At this station Dr. Nordmann took an Asellot, the determination of which has given me some difficulty. As may be seen from the figure, it has a striking resemblance to Janthe speciosa Bovallius Janthe, a new genus of Isopoda; Bihang Kgl. New England ; Report U. Commission Fish and Fisheries, pt.

America; Proc U. The resemblance to the latter species is especially striking; we know that Asellote Isopods can vary highly see, e. Hansen, Revider. Fortegn, over Danmarks marine Arter af Isop. Of the species mentioned, the present one stands unquestionably nearest to Jolella glabra Richardson, and at first I thought it was a somewhat divergent form of that species.

Miss Richardson has only had a single specimen for investigation; she gives but a short description of it without mentioning its size, and only one, not parti- cularly good, figure of it ; but my specimens agree perfectly with her description, when she ends by saying: "This species is very similar to Jolella spinosa Harger and differs chiefly from that species in lacking spines on the dorsal surface of the body. This species has been estabhshed on a single large specimen cJ and resembles J antra spinosa Harger so closely that H.

Hansen West Greenland, , p. Miss Richardson on the other hand regards them as two species in her Monograph Isop. America, , pp. The length is 14 mm. Jolella glabra has been taken off Gape Hatteras, at fathoms, in blue mud and fine sand, and consequently belongs to the Atlantic-boreal deep-sea fauna. It is practically impossible that an Atlantic deep-sea species could possibly be found in arctic conditions north of the ridge in Davis Strait and the few cases known to me where this happens with regard to the Greenland Malacostraca and Pycnogonida are the following: — Pan- daliis borealis and Pseudomma partum Danmark Expedition, 1.

Whether this is also true of Pseu- domma parvum cannot be decided now that it is only known from S. Ire- land Tattersall, as well as from the head of Umanak Fjord. I am quite unable to understand the case of Acanthoniscus typhlops and Janthe laciniata; the specimens determined by me Malac, Tjalfe Expedition; Vid.

Nordmann, who helped her husband to collect the animals in Greenland. Janthe libbeyi Ortmann PL 3. Jolanthe libbeyi Ortmann, Princeton University Bulletin, vol. Philadelphia , , p. Janthe — Richardson, Monograph Isop. America, , p. Stephensen, Danmark-Exp. The description which Ortmann has given of this species agrees excellently with the specimen taken by Dr. As Ortmann's figure is, however, very incomplete, I have thought it of importance to give some more detailed drawings; these will be found in PI.

Ortmann does not mention that each of the lateral angulations on the head termi- nates in a spine which is articulated into it; similar spines are also found upon all the lateral angulations of the segments and especially on the pleon. As the whole dorsal surface of the animal is quite smooth without any sculpture whatever I have regarded it as sufficient to give a mere outline of the entire animal. The locality is very interesting; previously the species has been known only from Gape Alexander, north of Gape York; 27 fathoms Ortmann.

Nebalia bipes 0. Nebalia has previously been known, on the whole, from only some ten Greenland localities; therefore these new habitats are of great interest, Account of tlie Crustacea and the Pycnogonida. Balanus porcatus da Costa. Balanus balanoides L. Balanus arenatus Brug. Balanus Hameri Ascanius. A large living specimen. The species is new to Greenland. Lepas anatifera L. This species has been included here, although it does not originate from Dr.

Nordmann's collections; but Porsild has given some speci- mens to our Museum, which were obtained, Oct. Plankton from Spitzbergen Weltner, Fauna arctica, vol. Cirripede nauplii and Cypris stages have been taken in several places see list of localities. Calanus finmarchicus Gunnerus. Calanus hyperboreus Kr.

Pseudocalanus elongatus Boeck PI. This species is an excellent example of how insufficiently the Plank- ton of the Greenland seas is known. The material contained not only adults but also many in the Cope- podite stages, chiefly in the 3rd stage. The Copepodites are very easily distinguishable by their urosomes which seen from the side are rather rounded in the middle see PI. Oberg has given a fairly exhaustive descrip- tion of the development of this species in Wiss.

Meere, Abt. Kiel, vol. Plankton-Copepoden d. Kieler-Bucht, ; but here all the plates are omitted. A record, accompanied by the more important figures is found in v. Breemen, Nordisches Plankton, vol. Kraefft in Ueber das Plankton in Ost- u.

Nordsee etc. Meersuntersuch- ungen, K. As Oberg, however, does not give drawings of all the limbs of any single stage, I have in the accom- panying PI. I think it unnecessary to give descriptions of the figures; for these I refer the reader to Oberg.

Centropages hamatus Lilljeborg. Ichthyophorba hamata Lilljeborg, De Crust, ex ordinibus tribus Clad. Centropages hamatus Giesbrecht u. Schmeil, Tierreich, , p. New to Green- land. Acartia longircmis Lilljeborg. Between St, 2 and the mouth of the fjord, surface; at the head of the fjord, across the two bays near Itivdliarsuk, surface. Metridia longa St. The genus is new to Greenland. Amphiascus Giesbrechtii G. Sars, Amphiascus Giesbrechtii G. In the above locality a single specimen of a Monstrilla,?

The specimen is very defective, the greater part of the right antenna is missing, and several of the hairs are wanting; thus, on the right branch of the furca there are 5, and on the left 4 only, and the apex is wanting from all of them except from the small dorsal hair. In Nordisches Plankton, vol. Bree- MEN has given an account of the few known northern Monstrillas.

Since then only 10 species more A. Scott, Siboga-Copep. It agrees closest with Monstrilla anglica Lub- bock see V. Breemen, 1. Scott, 22 Ann. Report Fishery Board f. Scotland, pt. That the specimen from Greenland has only 5 pairs of furcal hairs is of less significance, as the one pair is perhaps lost besides, on the right branch there is one more than on the left ; but the dorsal hair is seated on the outer side and not above the parting between the two innermost hairs.

Moreover, the carapace of the new species is reticulated see PI. Scott 1. For these reasons I think that there can be no doubt that it is really a new species; in the figures I have indicated all I have been able to see. Wandel who, both as the Head of the Commission for Greenland, and also in several other ways has rendered great services with regard to the exploration of Greenland.

Pseudopallene circularis Goodseer. Nymphon serratum G. Nymphon grossipes Fabr. Giesecke lake is situated north of, and also parallel with, the outer- most part of N. As the surface of the water is situated at a level of only about 10 metres above that of the sea there was reason to believe that its fauna would include relicts.

Whether such have been found belonging to the other groups of animals I do not know, as they have not as yet been worked out; but all the Crustacea are typical fresh- water species. List of the localities investigated and the animals from each locality. Just off the mouth of Ekalugssuit Bay, 43 m. Bosmina obtusirostris, about 10 specimens with young. PDaphnia pulex, 1 defective specimen. Between the eastern point of Ekalugssuit Bay and the shell-bank, 0— 2 m. Bosmina obtusirostris, a few, including some with eggs in the ephip- pium.

Diaptomus minutus, many hundreds, but none with eggs. Copepode Nauplii. Ekalugssuit Bay, — 1 m. Bosmina obtusirostris, a few with eggs. Diaptomus minutus, thousands, a few with eggs. Cyclops sp. Quite shallow water about 30 cm. Bottom sample sand, fragments of leaves and suchlike , in which occurred one Cyclops sp. From the shell-bank to Fotografipynten, — 1 m. Diaptomus minutus, some hundreds, none with eggs. Copepode Nauphi. Diaptomus minutus, a few specimens without eggs, or else no speci- mens.

Bosmina obtusirostris, a few specimens with eggs. Diaptomus minutus, some hundred specimens, a few with eggs. One very defective specimen of Bosmina sp.? Diaptomus minutus, about , a few with eggs. From Fotografipynten across the bay, — 1 m. Bosmina obtusirostris, a few without eggs. Diaptomus minutus, several thousands, only a very few with eggs. A few Copepode Nauplii.

Ceriodaphnia quandrangula, 1 specimen. From Fotografipynten to the S. PBosmina obtusirostris, a few specimens. Diaptomus minutus, several thousands, including a few with eggs. Cyclops strenuus, 1 specimen. Copepode Nauplii, numerous. Somewhat outside the mouth of Ekalugsuit Bay, 20 m. Some Copepode Nauplii. From the S. Bosmina obtusirostris, 1 specimen with eggs. Diaptomus minutus, several thousands.

Ekalugsuit Bay, 0— 2 m. Bosmina obtusirostris, a few, including some with eggs. Diaptomus minutus, several thousands, a few with eggs.

FUN BETTING STAKES

By Knud Rasmussen. By Peter Freuchen X. Ostenfeld XI. Freuchen in the year Report of the First Thule Expedition. Scientific Work. Freuchen XIII. Meteorological observations. Freuchen XIV. Leifit, et nyt Mineral fra Narsarsuk. Dahllit fra Kangerdluarsuk. DEN 6. I foretog Steenstrup sin 3. II Paa sin 4. I paa sin 5. Sin 7. I gik Steenstrup paa sin 8. Porsild og Maleren Grev H.

I gik Steenstrup paa sin 9. I Commissionen efterlader han et dybt Savn C. Introductory and Narrative of the Expedition. THE investigations described in the present paper were under- taken in primarily with a view to elucidate if possible a certain point connected with the catabolism of protein, namely the probable splitting up of the protein in a nitrogenous and a non ni- trogenous part and the possibility of storing the latter for later use in the organism according to its needs.

We should then be able to calculate the amount of carbon retained and from the corresponding respiratory quotients conclusions might be drawn with regard to the form in which it was stored. For obvious reasons it would be preferable if such experiments could be made on man, and if it were possible to feed a subject with albumin in excess of his energy requirements we considered that we had a reasonable chance of obtaining definite information.

We had every reason to think that it would be possible to make such experiments on Eskimos. We were told that the Eskimo was able to eat a tremendous amount of pure meat in a very short time 15 pounds in less than 14 hours and the observations, which one of us had occasion to make during a stay in Greenland several years ago, seemed to corroborate such statements. If they were only ap- proximately correct the complete metabolism of such a quantity in 24 hours appeared inconceivable and it would appear possible to as- certain the form in which the material was stored.

We were for a long time detained from attempting such an in- vestigation by the large difficulties inseparable from making physi- ological experiments of such a kind in an Arctic country with very bad communications and on subjects who could at best be described as semi-civilized. The very large number of analyses of food, urine and respiratory gases which it would be necessary to make acted also as a deterrent. In the spring of , however, Dr. Benedict of the Carnegie Nutrition Laboratory visited Copenhagen.

One of us had a consulta- tion with him on the plans which we entertained. He was very in- terested in the plan and offered to have all the samples which could be preserved analysed for us in his large laboratory.

In a Danish Arctic Station for biological research had been erected near Godhavn on the island Disco lat. Here was a laboratory which, though not equipped for physiological work, could render assistance on a large number of points. It was managed by our friend, the botanist M.

Porsild and we were most kindly invited to live and work at the Station. The whole expedition and investigation was finally made pos- sible by a grant of kr. We wish to express our sincerest thanks to the Carlsberg Fund for its liberal grant of money, to Dr.

Benedict, Director of the Nutri- tion Laboratory of Boston for the great aid given us with regard to the analysis of our samples and for valuable advice on a number of points, to Mr. Porsild, Director of the Danish Arctic Station for his great hospitality and his help in dealing with the natives, to Mr.

Nygaard Assistant of the Arctic Station, whose ingenuity and technical skill helped us to overcome several serious difficulties en- countered during the erection of our apparatus, and finally to the Administration of the Colonies in Greenland who did all in their power to further our work. Our final plans were as follows: We would go up to the Arctic Station in the spring and there erect in the open a respiration ap- paratus constructed beforehand and capable of accomodating two subjects.

The urine should be collected in similar intervals, measured and samples preserved. The subjects should be fed chiefly on sealmeat, their favourite food, and samples both of the food and the feces collected for subsequent analyses. These plans were carried through, practically completely, and though we failed to obtain clear and conclusive evidence on the point which we had specially set out to study, the data collected may ne- vertheless be of some value.

They represent the one extremity of that range of dietaries on which man can live and work, namely a diet which is practically exclusively of animal origin and contains an enormous amount of N and a minimum only of carbohydrates, and our observations go to show how little the diet matters after all. We may perhaps be justified in giving a brief general narrative of the expedition which will show some of the difficulties with which one has to contend in experiments of this kind and explain to some extent why we were unable to accomplish more than we did.

A Study of the Diet and Metabolism of Eskimos. By "kayak" the Arctic Station lying 50 miles north- wards across the Disco Bay was informed, and three days later in the early morning Mr. Porsild arrived in the motorboat belonging to the Station. The same day we left for Disco. Owing to the bulk of our luggage it was necessary to load a smaller boat with some of it and take it in tow. It became very foggy during the passage and suddenly it was dis- covered that this boat had become filled and was on the verge of sinking.

The goods were immediately transferred to the motorboat but some of our apparatus was damaged and certain pieces belonging to the respiration chamber drifted away in the mist. In the same moment the screw of the motorboat got fouled and we lay helpless. Happily a group of small islets were not far off to leeward. These we succeeded in reaching by sail.

The screw and machinery were cleared again, a depot of our apparatus was left, covered over with canvas and after some hours delay we set out again for Godhavn; this time reaching our destination without further mishap. Eskimos were afterwards sent out in kayaks to search for the missing things and by good luck and accurate knowledge of the currents found them.

The Danish Arctic Station distant about a mile from the trading station Godhavn — the residence of the Governor of North Green- land — consists of a small group of buildings. The Arctic Station with the respiration tliamber in course of construction. It possesses however a small chemical laboratory in which our gas analysis apparatus could be fitted up. The respiration chamber itself was erected near the Station on a piece of compara- tively level ground.

Inside it was fitted up like a real Eskimo hut. The only furniture consisted of a broad couch of boards covered with furs. It was painted in bright colours and gaily decorated everywhere with cheap coloured pictures to keep the subjects in good spirits during their confinement. The front was covered with a tent to protect it and the gas sampling apparatus against rain. Behind the chamber were two tents of which one was used as a laboratory, while the other was to be occupied by our Eskimo assistant and interpreter and a cook to prepare the food of the subjects so far in accordance with their taste as the experimental conditions would allow.

The chamber was ventilated by means of a large gas meter acting as a pump and driven by means of the water wheel partly shown on figure 2 which proved to be an efficient and very constant motor. The Arctic Station possessed a sort of water works consisting simply of a barrel put up in a brook about 50 feet above the house.

The whole of the camp had to be hedged in to protect it against the Eskimo dogs which were lurking about every- where and whose appetite is not limited to substances generally ad- mitted as eatable. Our chief anxiety was that they might break into the camp at night and eat the leather string connecting the water- wheel with the meter, thereby stopping ventilation. To provide against this contingency a special electric signal was put up which would ring a bell as soon as the string was torn away from the meter.

The dogs never got inside the hedge but it was torn away once by a gust of wind. As we had not had time to put the chamber together before we left Copenhagen we found of course that it was faulty in certain re- spects and several serious difficulties were encountered. By the re- sourcefulness of Mr. Nygaard, the assistant at the Arctic Station, all difficulties were overcome and in a fortnight the whole camp was completed and the experiments could begin.

Now arose the problem of getting suitable subjects. It was arranged from the outset to experiment on two persons simultane- ously because it was considered impossible to persuade any Eskimo to be alone in the chamber. We offered high wages, but the Eskimos were very unwilling to accept our offers, though the prospect of having only to sit quietly in a hut for four days and getting all they would eat should of itself be rather tempting to them.

The difficulty was that the whole affair could not avoid to appear in an extremely comi- cal ligth to the natives. Fortunately Godhavn was visited for a day by the famous Arctic traveller Mr. Knud Rasmussen who understands the Eskimo lan- guage and the Eskimo mind perfectly and knew personally most of the inhabitants and possessed their confidence.

He gave the natives an explanation of the object we had in view which was perhaps slightly beside the point, but which they thought they could understand and appreciate. It was something in the direction of our finding out how it came about that the Eskimos though living chiefly on meat never become gouty like the Europeans. Anyhow he suc- ceeded in persuading them that it was not our intention to make fun of them, and subjects were then forthcoming.

Still they had to be treat- ed with a certain consideration and caution and some of the conditions which would have been desirable from the point of view of the experimental results had to be abandoned. They could not for instance be prevailed upon to void urine at stated intervals.

In order both to keep them in good spirits and to produce a copious flow of urine they had a liberal allowance of weak coffee. They were informed beforehand that when they behaved well the stipulated wages would be supplemented by some valuable presents and that, we believe, had a good effect. On the whole we must say that the natives behaved admirably and did their part of the work very care- fully, and this applies especially to our interpreter and assistant Fr.

Thygesen who had indeed no easy task in explaining to the subjects all our incomprehensible instructions and preventing the rise of mis- understandings between them and us. The Greenland interpreter and assistant standing at the water wheel. Our first two subjects were females, the other males. During each series the subjects were confined in the respiration chamber for the whole of the time, that is about 4 days.

The first series showed some defects in the arrangements and working, and we found especially that on sunny days with little wind the temperature in the chamber might rise to such a height as to be uncomfortable. A cooling arrangement was therefore provided. During the three last series everything went well. The amount of work which we had to perform during the ex- periments was rather large, and we could not do so much as we wished to.

A regular watch was held throughout the day but during the before going in The female subjects Fig. In addition to the work of attending the experiment, sampling and weighing foods, urine etc. We made, moreover, a considerable number of urea determinations on the urine by means of the Esbach method in order to obtain a provisional idea of the results and also with a view to utilizing them in case some of the samples should be lost during the long transport from Green- land to Copenhagen and from here to Boston, 10 August Krogh and Marie Kro ;h.

During the first three series we had the advantage of the con- tinuous arctic day and a comparatively high temperature but during the last experiment we were obliged to use artificial light at night. On one night we had a considerable fall of snow and on another the temperature came so near to zero that we began to entertain fears for the water in the gas meter.

The increasing darkness and the fall in temperature prevented us from doing any more experiments. When on the 15th August we began to take down the camp and pack the samples for shipment we could, moreover, expect the steamer on which we should return almost any day. It arrived in fact on the 20th but was then on its way North to Umanak and it was not before the 29th that we embarked for Copen- hagen.

The arctic mosquitos de- serve to be specially mentioned because they obstructed and liampered the work a great leal. On still and hot days during July they will surround every man or animal as a thick cloud and they are a very blood-thirsty and cunning race. If for instance one attempts to protect the hands with gloves they will speedily find the stitches Fig.

Two male subjects A. It is exceedingly diffi- cult to concentrate the attention on making accurate observations and readings in the presence of any considerable number of these animals. The dietary and normal metabolism of Eskimos.

The Eskimos are probably the most exquisitely carnivorous people on earth, living, as most of them do, almost exclusively on meat and fish. At the Danish trading stations bread and flour can be bought, but the Eskimos living at a distance from these places use very little of it and may for long periods be absolutely without vegetable food.

The only indigenous food plants are whortle berries Vaccinium uligi- tiosiim , Angelica ojficinalis and a few seaweeds. The whortle berries ripen about the end of August and are sometimes eaten in considerable quantities during the autumn but as a rule they are swallowed like A Study of the Diet and Metabolism of Eskimos. Of Angelica the young shoots are eaten as a delicacy in July.

It is of no importance quantitatively. Seaweeds [Laminaria and some Rhodo- phyceae are eaten together with mussels when no other food is ob- tainable but "to live off the beach" means to be utterly destitute. A few Eskimos hke seaweeds and eat them when they can get them. When we have mentioned further that the half digested debris of plants found in the stomach of the Reindeer is much liked by the Eskimos, but comparatively seldom obtainable, we have exhausted the list of Eskimo vegetables.

Their chief and favourite food the Eskimos get from the seals. It is generally eaten without addition of any kind. Besides the seals the Eskimos eat the meat of Reindeer, Walruses and Whales. Whales abound but are not regularly caught. It is customary to shoot at any whale coming near enough. There is always the chance that it may die from the wounds and the carcass drift on to the shore and be found.

The skin of young whales is considered a special delicacy. Gases of poisoning with bear liver have been observed repeatedly by arctic travellers and the clinical symptoms have been studied by Lindhard on the Danish Expedition to the North East coast of Greenland and described in Danish in Hospitalstidende , p. This last named symptom has been observed repeatedly and also after eating the liver of Phoca barbata.

A toxicological examination of these livers would be of considerable interest. In the stratum corneum of 2 — 3 mm. Of birds they get a number, chiefly eiderducks and gulls and in the season they sometimes eat enormous quantities of. The eggs are eaten raw, and it does not matter at all if they have been brooded for a considerable time; the birds are boiled, gene- rally together with a little barley.

The principal food fishes are: Salmon, Cod, Greenland Halibut and Sea scorpion, but above all the Capelan Mallotus arcticiis, Eskimo: Angmagsset a small fish belonging to the salmon family which visits the shores in enormous numbers for a short time in July and which is then taken by hand or by means of very simple catchers used from the shore. Rather considerable quantities of these fishes are dried on the cliffs without undergoing any preparation and are stored for use in times of scarcity.

Of stimulants the Eskimos get very little. They are extremely fond of coffee the consumption of which has risen from 2,4 kg. Alcohol is much appreciated by the men but thanks to the provisions of a paternal and well intentioned government they are not allowed to obtain it except on rare occasions and in very small quantities. The indigenous food available during the year, after deduction of the quantities sold, amounted to 2. The quantities of mussels, seaweeds and "kvan" Ange- lica were uncontrollable.

These layers and also the raw liver of seals have been recognized by the Eskimos as sure means against scorbut and their therepeutical value has been fully confirmed by the medical officers in Greenland. Det sydhge Inspektorat, Kbhvn. Corresponding but not so detailed data are given in: Rink: Danish Greenland. London In the table given below the list of articles is some- what simplified and what we consider as probable figures for the food actually eaten are put in.

The capelans are eaten with bones, skin and all, and the loss should consequently be small but of these fishes a considerable part is no doubt lost during the time they are kept in a preserved state. Other fishes are eaten fresh and prepared in about the same manner as among civilized people.

The loss is therefore probably about the same. The compositions given in the table have been calculated partly from our analyses of the seal meat and allowing for the fact that some blubber is eaten along with the meat. This correction is somewhat uncertain and the quantities of fat eaten may have been underesti- mated. The composition of the bread is that usually assumed. With regard to the fish the protein content cannot be far wrong as that is practically the same in all food fishes.

The percentage of fat is rather doubtful. Fat 7o Carbo- hydr. Weight eaten gr. Total gr. Album, gr. Fat gr. Carbo- hydr. The other sources of supply may also give out occassionally in winter and, as the Eskimos are extremely improvident, times of actual, though never complete, starvation are not unfrequent. The Eskimos prepare for such times chiefly by laying up stores of fat in their bodies during the time of plenty.

Rink expresses the opinion that young and robust people may during several months when seals are abundant eat 4 kg. The dietary habits of Eskimos present an extremely close ana- logy to those of the large carnivorous animals. An Eskimo seal hunter will rise early in the morning and take no food except a cup of water, soup or nowadays generally coffee. He will go out to hunt either without food or provided with a small lump of dried or frozen meat.

He will return in the afternoon generally about 3 or 4 and as soon as the meat can be got ready he will fill himself to the limit of his capacity and then lie down to sleep for a couple of hours. After that he will talk and enjoy himself and generally he will take another meal before turning in and for this last meal of the day fish is often preferred even if meat is at hand.

On sledge journeys during the winter in the North the same dietary habits are observed. The provisions on such journeys consist of dry or frozen meat and blubber. When a full meal of frozen meat tp. The increased metabolism due to the al- buminous substances and independent of muscular actions may be of vital importance to the organism on such occasions. It may be of some interest to examine the mental and bodily qualities of the Eskimos, to see whether any influence of the peculiar diet is detectable.

They are of short stature Mean height men 1. They are capable of hard and prolonged muscular work but not mentally disposed for it. They possess an extraordinary power of enduring cold and hardships but this must no doubt be ascribed chiefly to the climatic and social conditions and only to a limited extent to the diet.

The state of health in Greenland is on the whole rather good though the climate and the extremely unhygienic native dwellings are responsible for a great deal of rheumatism, affecting muscles and nerves, and also for some more serious diseases. With regard to diseases which can be or must be connected with the diet it is especially noteworthy that uric acid diseases are practi- cally absent in spite of the animal and nuclein rich food.

With regard to the mental faculties it is a notable feature that the Eskimos are probably the most peaceful and unwarlike race in the world. It is hardly in accordance with common belief that. As far as can be ascertained they quarrel very little among themselves and that any quarrel, even the most serious, should lead to blows is absolutely unthinkable in Greenland.

If an Eskimo becomes disgusted with another he will simply avoid him and if necessary go away and fix his abode elsewhere. Formerly it was customary to meet together at great feasts and there to settle quarrels by songs, in which each characterized the other part according to his ability.

The man who could get his adversary most laughed at by the audience was the victor, but even such performances never led to blows. Deichmann, late medical officer in Greenland, for most valuable information with regard to the diet of Eskimos and its influence upon health. The respiration experiments. Our respiration chamber was constructed mainly on the Jaquet principle.

A current of air was sucked out at an approximately con- stant rate, while fresh air was allowed to enter through the leaks in the chamber, which was so far tightened that a slight negative pres- sure of about 1 mm. The air current was produced and measured by the revolutions of a large gas meter.. Con- Fig. The respiration cliamber in course of erection. As however our respiration chamber was rather large 5. Intermediate samples showing the composition of the air in the chamber at the moment were therefore drawn at the end of each period.

By the construction of the apparatus it had to be borne in mind that it should be erected in the open and had to be carried by hand over rough ground for a considerable distance. These were put on with a large number of screws and tightened by rubber bands and by means of a special substance known under the technical name of ruberine.

Windows were provided in front and on both sides. The entrance was effected through an air lock sufficiently large to hold one person, and a smaller lock about 1 cb. To guard against the possibility of the internal doors of the locks being opened by the subjects without per- mission or order these doors were connected with an electric signal.

In the chamber was placed wet and dry bulb thermometers which could be read through one of the windows. The air was sucked out through two IY2 inch openings placed on opposite walls one near the floor and the other at the ceil- ing. The two pipes led to a cylindrical vessel of about The meter was an ordinary 50 candle wet meter, the drum of which was carefully calibrated to take 4 cb.

It could be read to 1 cb. A con- stant level was maintained throughout by means of a fine jet of water and an overflow opening. The gas sampUng apparatus. This was fed from a small constant level reservoir. The meter was protected against direct sunlight but could not of course be kept at a constant temperature. On account of the large quantity of water in it, the changes were, however, com- paratively slow. From the pipe between the mixing vessel and the meter a piece of very narrow lead-tubing led to a sampling vessel.

The sampling apparatus consisted of two sampling vessels of cc. The vessels could be inserted in the short pieces of rubber tubing 1 and filled from the receiver 2 through the three-way tap 3. Through the second boring of this tap connection was established with a narrow rubber tube ending in a finely pointed glass tube through which the mercury could flow out.

The resistance in the point of the tube was regulated in such a way that the cc. In order to maintain a constant rate of flow the glass tube was inserted in the cork of a bottle in which the outflowing mercury was coflected and each bottle was suspended by means of a spring.

The weight of the mercury would lengthen the spring to such an extent that the vertical distance between the level of mercury in the sampling vessel and the bottle would remain practically unal- tered. When the bottle was so far lowered that the sampling vessel was nearly empty it would make an electric contact and ring a bell.

By this signal the operator was called and the corresponding period of the respiration experiment was then brought to a close. The sam- pling vessel was closed and the lead tube transferred to that on the other side. The thermometers in the chamber and the meter were read.

The meter itself was read and the exact time noted. Samples of atmospheric air and samples of the air in the chamber were taken immediately afterwards. These samples were taken in dry medicine bottles of 30 and 50 cc. By means of the arrange- ment shown in fig.

The glass tube was narrowed to such an extent that a con- siderable pressure was obtained in the blower. The bottle was accordingly washed out by a uniform but comparatively slow current of the air to be sampled and a cork soaked in paraffin wax inserted immediately on withdrawal of the tube. It is essential when taking samples in this manner, of air, dif- fering in composition from the surrounding atmosphere, that the current at the mouth of the tube is slow and uniform.

Otherwise it will on withdrawal act as a jet, and the sample in the bottle will be- Fis: 9. The sample of air from the chamber was taken from the outgoing pipe, a special trial having shown that an average sample was best obtained in this way. The gas samples were analysed by means of the Haldane apparatus which one of us has employed for a number of years. It is read to 0. The analyses of the continuous samples were always made in duplicate and repeated anew if the agreement was not satisfactory.

From the samples taken in medicine bottles only single analyses were made. During a series of analyses some dirt will accumulate in the burette while the amount of moisture will become diminished. This causes small errors and the first and last analysis of a series of 20 or.

To avoid serious errors on this account the analyses of the outside air were in most cases taken alternately with the corresponding analyses of air from the sampling apparatus, while the samples from the chamber were analysed in a single series after the close of each complete experiment. The calculation of the respiratory exchange.

The data from which to calculate the respiratory exchange of the subjects during a period are: 1. The quantity of air shown by the meter to have passed through the chamber during the period. Tabellen was employed. The results of the duphcate analyses are calculated to three decimal places and averaged.

To find these, curves are constructed from all the analyses and smoothed graphically. The calculation of the respiratory exchange is complicated by the fact that the quantity of air entering the chamber from outside A is not identical with the quantity found as outgoing, because the volume of CO2 produced is generally different from the volume of O2 consumed.

As however the quantity of nitrogen is not affected by the respiratory processes it becomes possible to calculate the volume of outside air which must have entered in order to make up the quan- tity present. Accuracy and sources of error in the respiration experiments. As the respiration chamber was scarcely completed when we had to start for Greenland we were unfortunately prevented from carrying out any experimental tests at home.

We attempted to test it in Greenland but the resources there at our disposal did not allow any very effective tests being made. We have therefore since our return made some test experiments on a smaller apparatus constructed and worked on the same prin- ciples as that used in Greenland. CO2 was admitted into the box and measured by means of a small meter. The sampling of the air in the box was performed as in the Green- land experiments with this difference only that the analyses of the air in the box at the beginning and end of each period were done in duplicate because the box was much larger in proportion to the ven- tilation during each period than was the case in Greenland.

The mixing of the air produced in actual experiments by the respirations and movements of the subjects was in the test experiments performed by a small electric fan. The table shows the presense of a systematic error amounting to about 2. The systematic error must be due to diffusion of CO2.

The systematic error caused by diffusion in the Greenland ex- periments is unknown but it may safely be assumed to be less than 2. Table of test experiments. The surface of the respiration chamber was about 10 times that of the box and the mean percentage of CO about 0. The actual loss per hour through identical walls should therefore be. It is probable that there is a similar systematic error in the oxygen values but on this point we have no experimental evidence.

If the O2 diffusion is different from that of CO2 a systematic error in the respiratory quotient must result, but such an error will obviously be very small. The accidental errors in the test experiments are caused exclu- sively by the analytical errors as both the air current and the sampling were absolutely uniform. In the Greenland experiments the analyti- cal errors were smaller absolutely, but in relation to the percentage of CO2 they were of about the same magnitude.

The revolutions of the meter ought to have governed the sampling after the manner adopted by Zuntz. We had the sampling independent of the meter and could only obtain quite accurate results if both were working at a uniform rate. The influence of even large deviations is however surprisingly small. If we assume f. In the Greenland experiments the water wheel ac- tuating the meter worked with such regularity that errors from this source are in all cases negligible, while the sampling was never abso- lutely uniform, the rate of outflow of mercury through a capillary point being generally slightly slower each time it is used and some- times considerably slower.

The largest alteration observed in the time of outflow of cc. As the temperature of the meter was read only at the beginning and end of each period the assumed mean temperature may be incor- rect. Summary of errors in respiration experiments. Influence of errors ou Or. Other determinations. As the food was not reduced to homogeneity, the samples could not of course be very representative and it is ob- vious when the results of the analyses are compared that large devia- tions must exist in certain cases.

The jars were closed air tight while still hot. Certain food stuffs the composition of which is very constant viz. The samples of food have been analysed in the Nutrition Labora- tory. The sticky, gluey nature of some of the materials made this very difficult and the excessive amount of fat in certain of the foods made it difficult to secure a fair composite sample. Every precaution was taken however to secure as even a sample as possible in taking out the portions for weighing for analysis.

The analyses were made on the partially dried basis and then computed on to the fresh weight as determined in Greenland. Deter- minations were made of nitrogen, heat of combustion and crude fat ether extract. The crude fat determinations are of course much less reliable than the determinations of nitrogen and heat of com- bustion". From the analytical data a table p.

As the energy of the urine has been determined on a few samples only we have de- duced 10 Calories per gr. The accuracy of the final energy values is of course comparatively small. We could not induce our subjects to void urine at prescribed intervals which would have simplified the calculations a great deal but it was fortunate that they almost invariably did it simultane- ously.

The quantities were each time measured accurately and samples of at least 4 the volume were preserved in medicine bottles the corks of which were soaked in paraffin wax. The samples were analysed in the Nutrition Labora- tory. Nitrogen determinations were made on all of them and on some the heat of combustion was also determined after drying in vacuo at ordinary temperature.

A number of the samples sent were distri- buted on two bottles labelled a and b. These were analysed as separate samples. The discrepancies are extremely small, ranging from to 0. N in the whole quantity of urine, which shows both that the analyses have been very accurately made and also that the preserva- tion has had either a constant effect or no effect at all upon the ni- trogen percentage.

The results of these comparisons will be discussed in detail later. Here it is only necessary to state that the agreement between the Esbach and Kjel- dahl results was on the whole remarkably good. Of the samples brought to Copenhagen from Greenland and sent on to America 2 were broken during the transport but the ni- trogen could without appreciable error be calculated from the corre- sponding Esbach determinations.

The feces were voided in jars of 1 liter which could be closed her- metically. We attempted separation of feces from the different diets em- ployed by means of raisin and fig seeds, but owing to our lack of ex- perience and some want of forethought we gave these fruits too often and at too short intervals, with the result that both kinds of seeds were present in a number of the feces. Nevertheless we have succeeded in most cases in roughly sepa- rating the feces belonging to the different diets and are able there- fore to draw certain, though not very precise, conclusions with regard to the utilization of the different diets.

Determinations have been made of the nitrogen, heat of com- bustion, crude fat and total ether extract after splitting up of the soaps with hydrochloric acid and alcohol. These last determinations show the quantities of fatty acids present as such and in combina- tions as soaps. General review of experiments made. Two female subjects M. Both subjects were in perfect health. The subjects were fed on the first day on non ni- trogenous food.

Thereupon for two days almost exclusively on meat of which the amounts consumed by both were gr. On the last day they were again fed chiefly on carbohydrate. The determinations of respiratory ex- change made during this experiment are untrustworthy and have not been included. During the exp. Their weights at the end of the exp. Ap- parently healthy but some bronchial ronchi. Apparently healthy. Slight ronchi. The exp. The subjects were fed on carbohydrates on the first and second day, on meat on the third and again on carbohydrates on the fourth and fifth.

On the meat day A. The subjects were occupied during most of the time with carving in ivory. They slept from 11 to 5 or 6. Final weights Two male subjects B. These subjects were very quiet and extremely regular in their habits. They did no work, except playing cards, and slept with great regularity from 10 — 6.

Final weights 65,5 kg. Subjects A. The subjects were given very little food on the 11th. On the 12th they had a large meal of meat in the forenoon each about gr. On the last day they were fed regularly chiefly on carbohydrates. The subjects were occupied with making a model of the respiration chamber and worked lightly during most of the day time. They slept regularly from 10 — 6. The food totals for each experiment and each individual are given below Table 2.

The food turned out, as shown by the analyses, to be of a more mixed character than we had expected and especially to contain on the meat days a very large amount of fat. The seal meat used in most cases contained on an average according to the analyses of the boiled meat 4.

From a comparison of the ascertained heat of combustion with the chemical analyses we find that it must have contained a considerable propor- tion of glycogen varying from 1. The raw meat must therefore have contained 3. Food consumed. Experiment I. Subject M. Calories p. Subject A. Subject N. Bread , Butter 25, Sugar 23, Raisins , Coffee ! The weights and compositions of the feces voided by each in- dividual during the experiments and for one to two days afterwards are shown in the appended table I.

The figures for the feces which we consider as belonging to the meat days are printed in larger type. The figures for feces belonging to the carbohydrate days are printed in italics. The meat feces are characterized by a somewhat higher percentage of nitrogen varying between 1. In the case of A. On the whole the feces contain rather much fat of which generally about one half is present as soaps and consequently not extractable with ether before treatment with acid.

The energy content of the feces per gr. N is apparently slightly lower after meat than after carbohydrate. On the whole the analyses show that the excessive amounts of protein and fat taken on the meat days are remarkably well utilized in the intestines of Eskimos; the loss of energy in the feces amounting on an average to about Cal. The nitrogen balance. Table 3 shows the amount of nitrogen ingested with the food on each separate day reckoned from midnight to midnight.

On the first and last day of each experiment the subjects have not been con- fined for the whole of the 24 hours and the corresponding quantities of iV are put in brackets. The second column shows the amounts of iV in the corresponding feces. It must be borne in mind that these figures are not wholly reliable as the separation of the feces was rather incomplete. It is obvious however that even the largest amounts of nitrogenous food are practically completely digested and absorbed.

The quantities of N in the feces belonging to the meat days are only slightly if at all higher than those belonging to carbohydrate. The figures on which this conclusion can be based are A. The corre- sponding figures for N. Nitrogen in food, feces and urine per day. Date Nitrogen in Differ- ence N. Experiment II. Experiment III. Experiment IV. Ill is an exception.

The nitrogen content of the urine shows that he has not lived on a meat diet on the two days pre- ceding the experiment and the feces for this period show 6. N per day as compared with 4. The nitrogen excretion through the gut is on almost all days higher than that observed on civilized people.

The ingestion of food began in all cases except exp. The 24 Exp. II: A. D ixp. III: B. W 30 August Krogh and Marie Krogh. I, and from 2 p. It is of course not absolutely certain, though in our opinion extremely probable, that the absorption of the nitrogenous food is practically completed within the 24 hours, and when that is the case the figures show a very considerable retention of nitrogen within the organism in those subjects who had had but little nitrogenous food for at least two days, namely N in meat N in urine Balance gr.

We think it highly improbable that the concentration of urea and allied substances in the body could rise sufficiently to explain a retention of the magnitude observed by us. When large amounts of protein can be stored there is no reason why the catabolism should not take place according to the energy requirements of the body. We look upon the specific dynamic action of protein as a consequence of its being incompletely catabolized deaminized immediately after absorption and in cells which do not require and therefore cannot utilize the energy liberated in the process.

When protein is stored as such it may be carried to cells which are able to utilize the energy liberated by deaminization and use the pro- tein as an equivalent of any other source of energy, and if that is so we must expect that the specific dynamic action of the stored material should disappear, or at all events become greatly reduced.

As will be shown below we have in our experiments found a remarkably low specific dynamic action of the protein. The Urine Excretion. The excretion of nitrogen in the urine has been followed from hour to hour in order to compare the nitrogen metabolism with the corresponding respiratory exchange. The curves obtained indicate, however, very distinctly that the excretion of N does not run parallel to the metabolism and probably not even to the formation of urea, but is strongly influenced by various other factors.

Hygiene, Bd. Our curves bear out the observations of our predecessors and give some additional information. As the subjects could not be in- duced to urinate at stated intervals we were obliged to take the samples as we could get them and then calculate the excretions per hour for each period. In the curves we have given the excretion of water in cc. Urine curves. N in cc. The figures put on the top of each curve are placed against the time of the nitrogen meals and indicate the number of gr. N taken.

We would draw attention to the following facts concerning the curves: 1. The general similarity of the curves for the two subjects in the same experiment. This similarity is very apparent in exp. I in which the individual excretions have been influenced by the irregular drinking of water. In our experiments also the excretion of nitrogen generally begins to rise very soon after the nitrogen meals curves I C.

In IV N. The excretion of water falls still more while the concentration rises. There has un- Fig. Curves for urine and output of CO. N per hour. In exp. The retention of N cannot therefore in this case have been due to lack of water in the organism. The mutual interdependence of water excretion and N ex- cretion is shown very distinctly by our curves.

In some cases it is obvious that we have a washing out of N because a large amount of water has to be got rid of as f. These cases are charac- terized by a more or less considerable fall in TV concentration. Curves for urine and respiratory exchange.

N per hour concentration only 0. Corresponding instances of a decrease in N excretion from lack of water characterized by a fall in the excretion of water and N and a considerable rise in con- centration are also present exp. Ill B. In a number of instances on the other hand we have an increase in concentration along with an increase in the total quantity of ni- trogen excreted. In these cases the rise in N excretion must be the primary factor which involves also an increase in diuresis.

The ni- LI. The highest con- centration observed by us is 2. The most conspicuous feature of the curves is the fall in ex- cretion taking place during the first 5 — 6 hours of the nights after Fig. After carbo- hydrates we find nothing of this, the excretion both of water and N being fairly uniform night and day see exp. They did not drink anything during the night, and it can easily be demonstrated from the respiration curves that they really slept again from about 4 to about 6.

The values for the 8 hours from 10 — 6 at night see table 6, p. Fredericq thinks that the rise may be produced by the custom of having a morning meal at a certain hour. Rosemann however gives the same explanation as we have accepted as the most probable viz. In our experiments any influence of habitual morning meals is excluded, as it is not custo- mary for the Eskimos to take food in the morning, and the rise more- over took place during the last hours of the sleep and at a time when the subjects would usually be asleep.

In table 4 are shown 24 hour values for volume of urine and N excretion. These figures have been calculated from the determinations made by means of Esbachs hypobromite method. The reagent 1 Pfl. Festband f. Hamburger, , Oversigter By employing a reagent with 1 cc.

The oxidation is so feeble that almost the whole of the nitrogen is liberated as gas while a small part of the carbon is oxidized to CO instead of CO2. Table 4, Excretion of urine and nitrogen in 24 hour periods. Of the other nitrogenous compounds present in urine some will react with hypobromite and yield gaseous nitrogen while others will not. In accordance with the fact that only part of the nitrogen is libe- rated from urine by hypobromite we find by comparison of the Kjel- 1 Creatine gives Hippuric acid, amino acids and polypeptides do not yield any gaseous nitrogen.

Kjeldahl N. Table 5 shows the relations between the nitrogen excretion and the ratio is diminished on the 5 shows the r Kjeldahl N EsBACH N on the separate days examined. Table 5. Date Subject Total nitrogen gr. S, The reasons for adopting this estimate are given in the paper quoted above, but it is obvious that since the relative quantities of these different substances is not quite constant the estimate can only be approximative.

The excretion of "endogenous" nitrogen is found to vary between 2 gr. The respiratory exchange. Curves representing the respiratory exchange for the two sub- jects taken together and each period of the experiments are shown in figs. For exp. The oxygen has therefore been cal- culated for 8 hour periods only. The curves give very little definite information but show the general character of the variations in metabolism. We find low and fairly constant values for the hours of the night from 10 to 6.

In the day time there are large and irregular variations due partly to the intake of food partly to muscular movements. We had hoped to be able to obtain some information about the movements by let- ting the subjects wear pedometers and reading these at the end of each period, but the results were very unsatisfactory. There appeared to be no relation whatever between the indications of the pedometers and the metabolism found.

We are inclined to think that the sub- jects have used the pedometers as convenient playthings. The respiratory quotient varies on the whole regularly in accor- dance with the nature of the food taken, being high 0. Sudden deviations from the level curve in the opposite direction have not been noticed. We have selected the hours from 10 to 6 at night, 6 — 2 in the forenoon and 2 — 10 in the afternoon as corre- sponding as closely as possible with the changes in activity of the subjects and the hours at which the changes in diet should' make themselves felt on the excretions and metabolism.

During the hours from 10 — 6 the subjects were in almost all cases asleep or at least lying down, and at 2 in the afternoon the efi'ect of the food taken du- ring the forenoon would generally begin to appear. Metabolism in 8 hour periods both subjects together. From the data of the respiratory exchange com- bined with the nitrogen excretion we have calculated further the total metabolism in accordance with the principles laid down by Zuntz.

We have assumed that the protein corresponding to the N found in the urine is completely catabolized during each 8 hour period pro- ducing After deducing the oxygen and 40 August Krogh and Marie Krogh. CO2, corresponding to the protein catabolism from the totals for these gases we have calculated the R. ZuNTz's table covers only the respiratory quotients between 0. II that the respiratory quotient of the non protein metabolism rose above unity indicating a formation of fat from carbohydrate.

In these cases we have extrapolated the caloric values of the oxygen from ZuNTz' table, but we are fully aware that the resulting figures for total metabohsm cannot be very accurate. Table 7 shows the average intake of calories with the food and the corresponding metabolism and N excretion per day for each sub- ject. The food is calculated for days Table 7.

Energy balance in reckoned from midnight to midnight and 24 hour periods. The figures for catabolic heat production and excre- tion of N are for days reckoned from 2 p. II the food has on all days been in excess of the requirements 2. Ill there has been an excess only on the first day, and in exp. IV the food has on all days been insufficient. The metabolism is low in all cases as might be expected from the confinement and the small amount of muscular work done.

The production of heat is lower in exp. II than in exp. IV in the same subjects in spite of the abundant food in the former exp,, but this is easily explicable from the difference in work per- formed. There is no clear evidence in the figures for 24 hours meta- bolism of any specific dynamic action of the protein in the diet. When we consider the separate 8 hour periods we find fairly low and uniform figures for the metabolism during the 8 hours when the subjects were asleep or at all events generally lying down and at- tempting to sleep.

Calories Calories in food produced N in urine. Physiologie, , p II the resp. IV the amount of food taken on the first day is not exactly known. It has exceeded Cal. II: 1. Ill: 1. IV: 1. During exp. II the subjects slept for shorter hours from 11 in- stead of 10 than in exp. IV, which explains the somewhat higher metabolism, while the two subjects employed in exp.

Ill would appear to possess normally a higher basal metabolism "Grundumsatz". During the hours of the day the metabolism is of course much more variable but we find in almost all cases lower values for the fore- noon 6 — 2 than for the afternoon 2 — The mean for all sub- jects and the hours 6 — 2 is 1. II the excess of food led to a production of fat as evidenced by the rise of the respiratory quotient of the non protein metabolism above unity.

It is of some interest to note that the quotient did not rise above unity during the first and second day when an excess of carbohydrate was given, but only during the latter half of the third day when the diet consisted chiefly of protein and fat. The respira- tory exchange of this day taken as a whole indicates apart from the protein catabolized an intake of 1. This would indicate probably that the quotient for the pro- tein catabolized had not really been 0. Ill and IV the respiratory quotients do not present any peculiarities which would allow definite conclusions to be drawn.

The specific dynamic action of the food cannot be quantitatively measured in our experiments but on the point of the specific dynamic action of the protein inferences of some interest may be drawn. The production of heat per kg. IV we find the lowest figure 1. With regard to the dynamic action of the protein it must be borne in mind that in all our experimental periods the TV excretion is high compared with what is usual for civilized people, while in some it is excessive lowest value for 8 hours and both subjects 9.

N and highest We can only study therefore the influence of an excessive catabolization of protein as compared with one which is already considerable. If you find grapefruit to be too sour tasting for your liking, eat it together with sweet fruits like mango and pineapple.

If you have ever bought a vitamin C supplement, it is very likely that parts of the packaging were orange in colour, or it had a picture of an orange somewhere on it. It is another fruit that can come in handy when trying to lose weight because it is low in calories and very sweet tasting.

The table below compares the vitamin C content in mg of g of various fruits. Another vibrantly coloured fruit, it is a source of bromelain, a protein digesting enzyme only found in pineapples. A type of melon, cantaloupes have an impressive nutritional profile, being a source of vitamin C, potassium, magnesium and manganese.

So be sure to eat this fruit regularly. Ou jwenn anpil ji nan mango, epi ji li gen anpil fib ki chaje vitamin C ladann. You can eat guavas on their own or include them in salads and desserts. If you love tomato juice, you'll get lots of vitamin C from your morning beverage, as 8 ounces of tomato juice provides nearly 45 milligrams of the beneficial vitamin. Vitamin C is widely known as good for your health.

Vitamin C increases the elasticity of the blood vessels and boosts the formation of new blood cells. Caloric Ratio Pyramid. The other abundant vitamin found in mango is vitamin A. The only hard seltzer with antioxidant Vitamin C. Read more about our flavors here. If you are going to be drinking orange juice, your best bet is to prepare it fresh at home, so as to reap all of the benefits that this fruit has to offer. Your DNA is the heart of your body makeup. Mangos are seasonal fruits; fresh mango fruit season begins by March end when its rich fragrance heralds its arrival in the markets.

Mangoes usually harvested while they are green but perfectly matured. Flavonoids: mango provides various flavonoid polyphenols such as quercetin, kaempferol, and apigenin. I use frozen mango chunks in this smoothie that I purchase from Costco. Welcome to Vizzy Hard Seltzer! The nutritional vitamin c content can be scaled by the amount in grams, oz or typical serving sizes. Vitamin C also is an antioxidant that helps to ward off cell and tissue damage in your body. One cup of sliced mango provides Mango butter contains high levels of antioxidants and beneficial vitamins A, C, and E.

Here is some information about the vitamin C properties of mango. Mangoes are naturally high in vitamin C and beta-carotene, and thus help in boosting immunity as well. Each serving of mango is fat free, sodium free and cholesterol free. Mangoes are naturally high in Vitamin C content. The bad: A large portion of the calories in this food come from sugars. Taste the tropics for a Mango is also a great source of vitamin A, which like vitamin C plays a key role in immunity and additionally keeps your eyes healthy.

Vitamin C also known as ascorbic acid is one of the most common nutrients. Mango fruit Mangifera indica is one of the most popular, nutritionally rich tropical fruits with unique flavor, fragrance, taste, and health promoting qualities, counting it in the list of superfruits. Mango: Vitamin C, antioxidant-rich, vitamin A, vitamin E, and fiber.

There are in fact lots of fruits and vegetables you can eat that will provide you with significant quantities of vitamin C. The consumption of grapefruit may be beneficial for the immune system thanks to the vitamin A and C it contains , insulin level control, heart health and weight loss. The fruit has a green outer rind and pink inner flesh, and may be available at a grocery store near you. Screening of mango Mangifera indica L. Cooking vitamin C-rich foods or storing them for a long period of time can reduce the vitamin C content.

Carrot is believed to have the highest amount vitamin A, containing more than percent of it. Green mangoes actually have more vitamin C content than their yellow or red counterparts. This is because the orange is the fruit that is most associated with vitamin C, and for good reason; they are packed full of it.

For example, combining them with Greek yogurt makes for a filling protein rich snack. The rose hip is a small, sweet, tangy fruit from the rose plant. Strawberries can be enjoyed in all sorts of ways. Vitamin C Plus contains 8mg of zinc to support wound healing and metabolism of protein, carbohydrates and fats.

Administering vitamin C topically through the skin has a better effect for this than taking it orally. G sugar, calories, 2g carbs, flavors, hint of pineapple mango The basic type of mango is Mangos, raw, where the amount of vitamin c in g is Mangos contain over 20 different vitamins and minerals, helping to make them a superfood.

The vitamin C content of over 50 commercial and wild fruit is listed, both by serving and by mg sample. The guava is a fruit that you may not have come across. Mango is an excellent source of vitamin C which keeps your eyes healthy 2. To discover even more vitamin C rich foods, check out this page. Rose Hips. Mango has Abundant Amount of Vitamin A. Dried mango possesses several beneficial nutrients, including vitamin A, which, along with other nutrients, helps to regulate metabolism, as well as calcium and iron.

Citrus fruits like pineapple or orange-colored fruit in general, such as mango, are high in Vitamin C. Mangiferin: mango is one of the primary dietary sources of this unique polyphenol. ALL of them, however, say it provides the recommended daily serving of vitamin C that adults need. Papaya is also a good source of potassium, folate and vitamin E.

Different sources say different things amount the amount of vitamin C one mango provides. When people fall ill, they are often advised to regularly drink hot water combined with lemon, ginger and honey. During the drying process, water-soluble vitamins like vitamin C are lost.

Sa depann nan ki faz li ye epitou ki tip mango li ye. This enzyme has been linked with a variety of health benefits, including reduced inflammation, cancer prevention and improved gut health. Again, the pulp provides ample fiber which we all need for regularity.

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Our respiration chamber was constructed mainly on the Jaquet principle. A current of air was sucked out at an approximately con- stant rate, while fresh air was allowed to enter through the leaks in the chamber, which was so far tightened that a slight negative pres- sure of about 1 mm.

The air current was produced and measured by the revolutions of a large gas meter.. Con- Fig. The respiration cliamber in course of erection. As however our respiration chamber was rather large 5. Intermediate samples showing the composition of the air in the chamber at the moment were therefore drawn at the end of each period. By the construction of the apparatus it had to be borne in mind that it should be erected in the open and had to be carried by hand over rough ground for a considerable distance.

These were put on with a large number of screws and tightened by rubber bands and by means of a special substance known under the technical name of ruberine. Windows were provided in front and on both sides. The entrance was effected through an air lock sufficiently large to hold one person, and a smaller lock about 1 cb. To guard against the possibility of the internal doors of the locks being opened by the subjects without per- mission or order these doors were connected with an electric signal.

In the chamber was placed wet and dry bulb thermometers which could be read through one of the windows. The air was sucked out through two IY2 inch openings placed on opposite walls one near the floor and the other at the ceil- ing. The two pipes led to a cylindrical vessel of about The meter was an ordinary 50 candle wet meter, the drum of which was carefully calibrated to take 4 cb.

It could be read to 1 cb. A con- stant level was maintained throughout by means of a fine jet of water and an overflow opening. The gas sampUng apparatus. This was fed from a small constant level reservoir. The meter was protected against direct sunlight but could not of course be kept at a constant temperature. On account of the large quantity of water in it, the changes were, however, com- paratively slow.

From the pipe between the mixing vessel and the meter a piece of very narrow lead-tubing led to a sampling vessel. The sampling apparatus consisted of two sampling vessels of cc. The vessels could be inserted in the short pieces of rubber tubing 1 and filled from the receiver 2 through the three-way tap 3.

Through the second boring of this tap connection was established with a narrow rubber tube ending in a finely pointed glass tube through which the mercury could flow out. The resistance in the point of the tube was regulated in such a way that the cc. In order to maintain a constant rate of flow the glass tube was inserted in the cork of a bottle in which the outflowing mercury was coflected and each bottle was suspended by means of a spring.

The weight of the mercury would lengthen the spring to such an extent that the vertical distance between the level of mercury in the sampling vessel and the bottle would remain practically unal- tered. When the bottle was so far lowered that the sampling vessel was nearly empty it would make an electric contact and ring a bell.

By this signal the operator was called and the corresponding period of the respiration experiment was then brought to a close. The sam- pling vessel was closed and the lead tube transferred to that on the other side. The thermometers in the chamber and the meter were read. The meter itself was read and the exact time noted. Samples of atmospheric air and samples of the air in the chamber were taken immediately afterwards.

These samples were taken in dry medicine bottles of 30 and 50 cc. By means of the arrange- ment shown in fig. The glass tube was narrowed to such an extent that a con- siderable pressure was obtained in the blower. The bottle was accordingly washed out by a uniform but comparatively slow current of the air to be sampled and a cork soaked in paraffin wax inserted immediately on withdrawal of the tube.

It is essential when taking samples in this manner, of air, dif- fering in composition from the surrounding atmosphere, that the current at the mouth of the tube is slow and uniform. Otherwise it will on withdrawal act as a jet, and the sample in the bottle will be- Fis: 9. The sample of air from the chamber was taken from the outgoing pipe, a special trial having shown that an average sample was best obtained in this way.

The gas samples were analysed by means of the Haldane apparatus which one of us has employed for a number of years. It is read to 0. The analyses of the continuous samples were always made in duplicate and repeated anew if the agreement was not satisfactory. From the samples taken in medicine bottles only single analyses were made.

During a series of analyses some dirt will accumulate in the burette while the amount of moisture will become diminished. This causes small errors and the first and last analysis of a series of 20 or. To avoid serious errors on this account the analyses of the outside air were in most cases taken alternately with the corresponding analyses of air from the sampling apparatus, while the samples from the chamber were analysed in a single series after the close of each complete experiment.

The calculation of the respiratory exchange. The data from which to calculate the respiratory exchange of the subjects during a period are: 1. The quantity of air shown by the meter to have passed through the chamber during the period. Tabellen was employed. The results of the duphcate analyses are calculated to three decimal places and averaged. To find these, curves are constructed from all the analyses and smoothed graphically.

The calculation of the respiratory exchange is complicated by the fact that the quantity of air entering the chamber from outside A is not identical with the quantity found as outgoing, because the volume of CO2 produced is generally different from the volume of O2 consumed.

As however the quantity of nitrogen is not affected by the respiratory processes it becomes possible to calculate the volume of outside air which must have entered in order to make up the quan- tity present. Accuracy and sources of error in the respiration experiments. As the respiration chamber was scarcely completed when we had to start for Greenland we were unfortunately prevented from carrying out any experimental tests at home.

We attempted to test it in Greenland but the resources there at our disposal did not allow any very effective tests being made. We have therefore since our return made some test experiments on a smaller apparatus constructed and worked on the same prin- ciples as that used in Greenland.

CO2 was admitted into the box and measured by means of a small meter. The sampling of the air in the box was performed as in the Green- land experiments with this difference only that the analyses of the air in the box at the beginning and end of each period were done in duplicate because the box was much larger in proportion to the ven- tilation during each period than was the case in Greenland.

The mixing of the air produced in actual experiments by the respirations and movements of the subjects was in the test experiments performed by a small electric fan. The table shows the presense of a systematic error amounting to about 2. The systematic error must be due to diffusion of CO2. The systematic error caused by diffusion in the Greenland ex- periments is unknown but it may safely be assumed to be less than 2.

Table of test experiments. The surface of the respiration chamber was about 10 times that of the box and the mean percentage of CO about 0. The actual loss per hour through identical walls should therefore be. It is probable that there is a similar systematic error in the oxygen values but on this point we have no experimental evidence. If the O2 diffusion is different from that of CO2 a systematic error in the respiratory quotient must result, but such an error will obviously be very small.

The accidental errors in the test experiments are caused exclu- sively by the analytical errors as both the air current and the sampling were absolutely uniform. In the Greenland experiments the analyti- cal errors were smaller absolutely, but in relation to the percentage of CO2 they were of about the same magnitude. The revolutions of the meter ought to have governed the sampling after the manner adopted by Zuntz.

We had the sampling independent of the meter and could only obtain quite accurate results if both were working at a uniform rate. The influence of even large deviations is however surprisingly small. If we assume f. In the Greenland experiments the water wheel ac- tuating the meter worked with such regularity that errors from this source are in all cases negligible, while the sampling was never abso- lutely uniform, the rate of outflow of mercury through a capillary point being generally slightly slower each time it is used and some- times considerably slower.

The largest alteration observed in the time of outflow of cc. As the temperature of the meter was read only at the beginning and end of each period the assumed mean temperature may be incor- rect. Summary of errors in respiration experiments.

Influence of errors ou Or. Other determinations. As the food was not reduced to homogeneity, the samples could not of course be very representative and it is ob- vious when the results of the analyses are compared that large devia- tions must exist in certain cases. The jars were closed air tight while still hot.

Certain food stuffs the composition of which is very constant viz. The samples of food have been analysed in the Nutrition Labora- tory. The sticky, gluey nature of some of the materials made this very difficult and the excessive amount of fat in certain of the foods made it difficult to secure a fair composite sample. Every precaution was taken however to secure as even a sample as possible in taking out the portions for weighing for analysis. The analyses were made on the partially dried basis and then computed on to the fresh weight as determined in Greenland.

Deter- minations were made of nitrogen, heat of combustion and crude fat ether extract. The crude fat determinations are of course much less reliable than the determinations of nitrogen and heat of com- bustion". From the analytical data a table p. As the energy of the urine has been determined on a few samples only we have de- duced 10 Calories per gr.

The accuracy of the final energy values is of course comparatively small. We could not induce our subjects to void urine at prescribed intervals which would have simplified the calculations a great deal but it was fortunate that they almost invariably did it simultane- ously. The quantities were each time measured accurately and samples of at least 4 the volume were preserved in medicine bottles the corks of which were soaked in paraffin wax. The samples were analysed in the Nutrition Labora- tory.

Nitrogen determinations were made on all of them and on some the heat of combustion was also determined after drying in vacuo at ordinary temperature. A number of the samples sent were distri- buted on two bottles labelled a and b.

These were analysed as separate samples. The discrepancies are extremely small, ranging from to 0. N in the whole quantity of urine, which shows both that the analyses have been very accurately made and also that the preserva- tion has had either a constant effect or no effect at all upon the ni- trogen percentage. The results of these comparisons will be discussed in detail later. Here it is only necessary to state that the agreement between the Esbach and Kjel- dahl results was on the whole remarkably good.

Of the samples brought to Copenhagen from Greenland and sent on to America 2 were broken during the transport but the ni- trogen could without appreciable error be calculated from the corre- sponding Esbach determinations. The feces were voided in jars of 1 liter which could be closed her- metically. We attempted separation of feces from the different diets em- ployed by means of raisin and fig seeds, but owing to our lack of ex- perience and some want of forethought we gave these fruits too often and at too short intervals, with the result that both kinds of seeds were present in a number of the feces.

Nevertheless we have succeeded in most cases in roughly sepa- rating the feces belonging to the different diets and are able there- fore to draw certain, though not very precise, conclusions with regard to the utilization of the different diets. Determinations have been made of the nitrogen, heat of com- bustion, crude fat and total ether extract after splitting up of the soaps with hydrochloric acid and alcohol. These last determinations show the quantities of fatty acids present as such and in combina- tions as soaps.

General review of experiments made. Two female subjects M. Both subjects were in perfect health. The subjects were fed on the first day on non ni- trogenous food. Thereupon for two days almost exclusively on meat of which the amounts consumed by both were gr. On the last day they were again fed chiefly on carbohydrate. The determinations of respiratory ex- change made during this experiment are untrustworthy and have not been included.

During the exp. Their weights at the end of the exp. Ap- parently healthy but some bronchial ronchi. Apparently healthy. Slight ronchi. The exp. The subjects were fed on carbohydrates on the first and second day, on meat on the third and again on carbohydrates on the fourth and fifth.

On the meat day A. The subjects were occupied during most of the time with carving in ivory. They slept from 11 to 5 or 6. Final weights Two male subjects B. These subjects were very quiet and extremely regular in their habits. They did no work, except playing cards, and slept with great regularity from 10 — 6.

Final weights 65,5 kg. Subjects A. The subjects were given very little food on the 11th. On the 12th they had a large meal of meat in the forenoon each about gr. On the last day they were fed regularly chiefly on carbohydrates. The subjects were occupied with making a model of the respiration chamber and worked lightly during most of the day time.

They slept regularly from 10 — 6. The food totals for each experiment and each individual are given below Table 2. The food turned out, as shown by the analyses, to be of a more mixed character than we had expected and especially to contain on the meat days a very large amount of fat. The seal meat used in most cases contained on an average according to the analyses of the boiled meat 4.

From a comparison of the ascertained heat of combustion with the chemical analyses we find that it must have contained a considerable propor- tion of glycogen varying from 1. The raw meat must therefore have contained 3. Food consumed. Experiment I. Subject M. Calories p. Subject A. Subject N. Bread , Butter 25, Sugar 23, Raisins , Coffee ! The weights and compositions of the feces voided by each in- dividual during the experiments and for one to two days afterwards are shown in the appended table I.

The figures for the feces which we consider as belonging to the meat days are printed in larger type. The figures for feces belonging to the carbohydrate days are printed in italics. The meat feces are characterized by a somewhat higher percentage of nitrogen varying between 1.

In the case of A. On the whole the feces contain rather much fat of which generally about one half is present as soaps and consequently not extractable with ether before treatment with acid. The energy content of the feces per gr. N is apparently slightly lower after meat than after carbohydrate. On the whole the analyses show that the excessive amounts of protein and fat taken on the meat days are remarkably well utilized in the intestines of Eskimos; the loss of energy in the feces amounting on an average to about Cal.

The nitrogen balance. Table 3 shows the amount of nitrogen ingested with the food on each separate day reckoned from midnight to midnight. On the first and last day of each experiment the subjects have not been con- fined for the whole of the 24 hours and the corresponding quantities of iV are put in brackets. The second column shows the amounts of iV in the corresponding feces. It must be borne in mind that these figures are not wholly reliable as the separation of the feces was rather incomplete.

It is obvious however that even the largest amounts of nitrogenous food are practically completely digested and absorbed. The quantities of N in the feces belonging to the meat days are only slightly if at all higher than those belonging to carbohydrate. The figures on which this conclusion can be based are A. The corre- sponding figures for N.

Nitrogen in food, feces and urine per day. Date Nitrogen in Differ- ence N. Experiment II. Experiment III. Experiment IV. Ill is an exception. The nitrogen content of the urine shows that he has not lived on a meat diet on the two days pre- ceding the experiment and the feces for this period show 6. N per day as compared with 4. The nitrogen excretion through the gut is on almost all days higher than that observed on civilized people. The ingestion of food began in all cases except exp.

The 24 Exp. II: A. D ixp. III: B. W 30 August Krogh and Marie Krogh. I, and from 2 p. It is of course not absolutely certain, though in our opinion extremely probable, that the absorption of the nitrogenous food is practically completed within the 24 hours, and when that is the case the figures show a very considerable retention of nitrogen within the organism in those subjects who had had but little nitrogenous food for at least two days, namely N in meat N in urine Balance gr.

We think it highly improbable that the concentration of urea and allied substances in the body could rise sufficiently to explain a retention of the magnitude observed by us. When large amounts of protein can be stored there is no reason why the catabolism should not take place according to the energy requirements of the body. We look upon the specific dynamic action of protein as a consequence of its being incompletely catabolized deaminized immediately after absorption and in cells which do not require and therefore cannot utilize the energy liberated in the process.

When protein is stored as such it may be carried to cells which are able to utilize the energy liberated by deaminization and use the pro- tein as an equivalent of any other source of energy, and if that is so we must expect that the specific dynamic action of the stored material should disappear, or at all events become greatly reduced.

As will be shown below we have in our experiments found a remarkably low specific dynamic action of the protein. The Urine Excretion. The excretion of nitrogen in the urine has been followed from hour to hour in order to compare the nitrogen metabolism with the corresponding respiratory exchange. The curves obtained indicate, however, very distinctly that the excretion of N does not run parallel to the metabolism and probably not even to the formation of urea, but is strongly influenced by various other factors.

Hygiene, Bd. Our curves bear out the observations of our predecessors and give some additional information. As the subjects could not be in- duced to urinate at stated intervals we were obliged to take the samples as we could get them and then calculate the excretions per hour for each period. In the curves we have given the excretion of water in cc. Urine curves. N in cc.

The figures put on the top of each curve are placed against the time of the nitrogen meals and indicate the number of gr. N taken. We would draw attention to the following facts concerning the curves: 1. The general similarity of the curves for the two subjects in the same experiment. This similarity is very apparent in exp. I in which the individual excretions have been influenced by the irregular drinking of water.

In our experiments also the excretion of nitrogen generally begins to rise very soon after the nitrogen meals curves I C. In IV N. The excretion of water falls still more while the concentration rises. There has un- Fig. Curves for urine and output of CO. N per hour.

In exp. The retention of N cannot therefore in this case have been due to lack of water in the organism. The mutual interdependence of water excretion and N ex- cretion is shown very distinctly by our curves. In some cases it is obvious that we have a washing out of N because a large amount of water has to be got rid of as f. These cases are charac- terized by a more or less considerable fall in TV concentration. Curves for urine and respiratory exchange.

N per hour concentration only 0. Corresponding instances of a decrease in N excretion from lack of water characterized by a fall in the excretion of water and N and a considerable rise in con- centration are also present exp. Ill B. In a number of instances on the other hand we have an increase in concentration along with an increase in the total quantity of ni- trogen excreted. In these cases the rise in N excretion must be the primary factor which involves also an increase in diuresis.

The ni- LI. The highest con- centration observed by us is 2. The most conspicuous feature of the curves is the fall in ex- cretion taking place during the first 5 — 6 hours of the nights after Fig. After carbo- hydrates we find nothing of this, the excretion both of water and N being fairly uniform night and day see exp. They did not drink anything during the night, and it can easily be demonstrated from the respiration curves that they really slept again from about 4 to about 6.

The values for the 8 hours from 10 — 6 at night see table 6, p. Fredericq thinks that the rise may be produced by the custom of having a morning meal at a certain hour. Rosemann however gives the same explanation as we have accepted as the most probable viz. In our experiments any influence of habitual morning meals is excluded, as it is not custo- mary for the Eskimos to take food in the morning, and the rise more- over took place during the last hours of the sleep and at a time when the subjects would usually be asleep.

In table 4 are shown 24 hour values for volume of urine and N excretion. These figures have been calculated from the determinations made by means of Esbachs hypobromite method. The reagent 1 Pfl. Festband f. Hamburger, , Oversigter By employing a reagent with 1 cc. The oxidation is so feeble that almost the whole of the nitrogen is liberated as gas while a small part of the carbon is oxidized to CO instead of CO2.

Table 4, Excretion of urine and nitrogen in 24 hour periods. Of the other nitrogenous compounds present in urine some will react with hypobromite and yield gaseous nitrogen while others will not. In accordance with the fact that only part of the nitrogen is libe- rated from urine by hypobromite we find by comparison of the Kjel- 1 Creatine gives Hippuric acid, amino acids and polypeptides do not yield any gaseous nitrogen.

Kjeldahl N. Table 5 shows the relations between the nitrogen excretion and the ratio is diminished on the 5 shows the r Kjeldahl N EsBACH N on the separate days examined. Table 5. Date Subject Total nitrogen gr. S, The reasons for adopting this estimate are given in the paper quoted above, but it is obvious that since the relative quantities of these different substances is not quite constant the estimate can only be approximative. The excretion of "endogenous" nitrogen is found to vary between 2 gr.

The respiratory exchange. Curves representing the respiratory exchange for the two sub- jects taken together and each period of the experiments are shown in figs. For exp. The oxygen has therefore been cal- culated for 8 hour periods only. The curves give very little definite information but show the general character of the variations in metabolism. We find low and fairly constant values for the hours of the night from 10 to 6. In the day time there are large and irregular variations due partly to the intake of food partly to muscular movements.

We had hoped to be able to obtain some information about the movements by let- ting the subjects wear pedometers and reading these at the end of each period, but the results were very unsatisfactory. There appeared to be no relation whatever between the indications of the pedometers and the metabolism found.

We are inclined to think that the sub- jects have used the pedometers as convenient playthings. The respiratory quotient varies on the whole regularly in accor- dance with the nature of the food taken, being high 0. Sudden deviations from the level curve in the opposite direction have not been noticed. We have selected the hours from 10 to 6 at night, 6 — 2 in the forenoon and 2 — 10 in the afternoon as corre- sponding as closely as possible with the changes in activity of the subjects and the hours at which the changes in diet should' make themselves felt on the excretions and metabolism.

During the hours from 10 — 6 the subjects were in almost all cases asleep or at least lying down, and at 2 in the afternoon the efi'ect of the food taken du- ring the forenoon would generally begin to appear. Metabolism in 8 hour periods both subjects together. From the data of the respiratory exchange com- bined with the nitrogen excretion we have calculated further the total metabolism in accordance with the principles laid down by Zuntz. We have assumed that the protein corresponding to the N found in the urine is completely catabolized during each 8 hour period pro- ducing After deducing the oxygen and 40 August Krogh and Marie Krogh.

CO2, corresponding to the protein catabolism from the totals for these gases we have calculated the R. ZuNTz's table covers only the respiratory quotients between 0. II that the respiratory quotient of the non protein metabolism rose above unity indicating a formation of fat from carbohydrate. In these cases we have extrapolated the caloric values of the oxygen from ZuNTz' table, but we are fully aware that the resulting figures for total metabohsm cannot be very accurate.

Table 7 shows the average intake of calories with the food and the corresponding metabolism and N excretion per day for each sub- ject. The food is calculated for days Table 7. Energy balance in reckoned from midnight to midnight and 24 hour periods. The figures for catabolic heat production and excre- tion of N are for days reckoned from 2 p. II the food has on all days been in excess of the requirements 2. Ill there has been an excess only on the first day, and in exp.

IV the food has on all days been insufficient. The metabolism is low in all cases as might be expected from the confinement and the small amount of muscular work done. The production of heat is lower in exp. II than in exp. IV in the same subjects in spite of the abundant food in the former exp,, but this is easily explicable from the difference in work per- formed.

There is no clear evidence in the figures for 24 hours meta- bolism of any specific dynamic action of the protein in the diet. When we consider the separate 8 hour periods we find fairly low and uniform figures for the metabolism during the 8 hours when the subjects were asleep or at all events generally lying down and at- tempting to sleep. Calories Calories in food produced N in urine.

Physiologie, , p II the resp. IV the amount of food taken on the first day is not exactly known. It has exceeded Cal. II: 1. Ill: 1. IV: 1. During exp. II the subjects slept for shorter hours from 11 in- stead of 10 than in exp. IV, which explains the somewhat higher metabolism, while the two subjects employed in exp. Ill would appear to possess normally a higher basal metabolism "Grundumsatz".

During the hours of the day the metabolism is of course much more variable but we find in almost all cases lower values for the fore- noon 6 — 2 than for the afternoon 2 — The mean for all sub- jects and the hours 6 — 2 is 1. II the excess of food led to a production of fat as evidenced by the rise of the respiratory quotient of the non protein metabolism above unity. It is of some interest to note that the quotient did not rise above unity during the first and second day when an excess of carbohydrate was given, but only during the latter half of the third day when the diet consisted chiefly of protein and fat.

The respira- tory exchange of this day taken as a whole indicates apart from the protein catabolized an intake of 1. This would indicate probably that the quotient for the pro- tein catabolized had not really been 0. Ill and IV the respiratory quotients do not present any peculiarities which would allow definite conclusions to be drawn.

The specific dynamic action of the food cannot be quantitatively measured in our experiments but on the point of the specific dynamic action of the protein inferences of some interest may be drawn. The production of heat per kg. IV we find the lowest figure 1. With regard to the dynamic action of the protein it must be borne in mind that in all our experimental periods the TV excretion is high compared with what is usual for civilized people, while in some it is excessive lowest value for 8 hours and both subjects 9.

N and highest We can only study therefore the influence of an excessive catabolization of protein as compared with one which is already considerable. An inspection of the figures in table 6 shows that the influence cannot be estimated from individual periods because the production of heat has been too varied under the influence of other factors mus- cular movements etc.

In order to get a result it is necessary to treat the material statistically. We have done this by first reducing the heat produced during each period to a common standard of rest. For each experiment and each group of corresponding periods we have calculated the mean production of heat per kg. The means for each group and the corresponding mean errors of the heat production have been computed. S1 G In each group how- ever one figure deviates more than double the mean error from the A Study of the Diet and Metabolism of Eskimos.

If these are excluded according to the usual rules i and if we exclude further the periods in which the resp. Reduced metabolism Calories N in urine gr. Reduced metabolism Calories N in the urine or 8. This figure for the specific dynamic action of nitrogen is remarkably low, and if we attempt a calculation from the night values alone we find it lower still. We do not think it advisable, however, to draw far reaching conclusions from the result.

These writers have, with a technique far superior to ours, studied the metaboUsm in short consecutive periods in a dog after much meat and also after the administration of individual amino acids. They have demonstrated clearly a retention of carbon from protein in the form of carbohydrate, and they find further that in the dog the ingestion of meat or certain amino acids causes a very considerable rise in the total metabolism by stimulating the catabolic activity of the organism.

The normal diet of Eskimos contains an excessive amount of animal protein gr. Their dietary habits are vey like those of the carnivorous animals. The diet does not appear to have any injurious effects whatever upon the people. They are capable of prolonged work and extremely enduring with regard to cold and hardships. Uric acid diseases are very rare among them if they occur at all.

In our feeding experiments made under absolute control within the respiratory chamber we observed a maximum intake on one day of gr. The large quantities of meat are well absorbed and utilized by the Eskimos. The loss of nitrogen in the feces amounts to 3 — 5 gr. The maximum quantity of nitrogen found in the urine of one day was 53 gr. The urine curves show very distinctly the interdependence of nitrogen and water excretion.

During the nights after much meat there is a retention of nitrogen and also of water until about 4 in the morning but the quantity retained is excreted in bulk during the next two to three hours. In this case we have undoubtedly a retention of urea owing to decreased functional activity of the kidneys.

N determined in 24 hour periods. The variations in "endogenous" nitrogen are small from 2 to 4 gr. The respiratory exchange as determined in our experiments varies irregularly during the day but is always higher during the afternoon from 2 to 10 than during the forenoon 6 — 2. During the night it is almost constant and practically independent of the A Study of the Diet and Metabolism of Eskimos. The metaboHsm during sleep per kg.

The specific dynamic action of the protein catabolized has been cal- culated from all the 8 hour periods taken in two groups and works out as 8. According to our experiments the Eskimos would appear therefore to be able to retain a large amount of protein for a certain period exceeding 24 hours and to utilize it as a source of energy with very little loss.

Tables showing composition of feces, excretion of urine and nitrogen, heat of combustion of some urines and data of respiration experiments. Table I. Analyses of feces. Experiment I: M. Not enough material for Experiment II ; A. Experiment IV ; A. Fresh weight gr.

Il I 1. Il i 1. Table II. Excretion of urine and nitrogen. Table II continued. Ol 0- e a:d! Heat of combustion of some Eskimo urines. Table IV. Ven- tila- tion cb. Krogh and M, Table IV continued. Air from Air from 'i -0 TD Ven- tila- tion cb.

Outside air chamber continous Tp. This investigation is the first of a series of investigations of the animal life of the fjords of Greenland and consequently is of very great interest. Previous expeditions have usually kept to rather shallow water or confined themselves to making scattered dredgings in deeper water; the Ingolf Expedition during the two summers — 96 had to investigate as far as possible all Greenland waters, and therefore naturally was not able to devote its attention to a single area.

The Tjalfe Expedition of — 09 was confident that it had proved that the fjords of southern Greenland could be divided into two groups, viz. Last summer the Commission did me the honour of sending me to Greenland to investigate some fjords of the Atlantic type ; as exam- ples of such. Kvanefjord near Frederikshaab and Bredefjord and Skovfjord between Ivigtut and Julianehaab were chosen. Bredefjord, owing to its greater depth above metres , especially proved to be extremely interesting; an account of the results will probably soon be published.

Stephensen, But there are yet other Greenland fjords, the investigation of which will unquestionably yield very interesting results; first and foremost, Umanak Fjord which, although it is situated 5 degrees of latitude north of the ridge in Davis Strait yet, according to the Tjalfe Expedition, has bottom water of a temperature above freezing point.

The most interesting investigation will, however, be that of the great depth in Baffin Bay, as it is a vexed question, how far the fauna there is Arctic or Atlantic. The present paper deals with 70 species in all. In the following list the figures before the names of the species indicate the number allot- ted to each species. Two species are new to science, viz, Monstrilla Wandelii. In addition to these, the following eight species are new to Green- land: — Orchomenella pinguis, Metopa leptocarpa, Podocerus pusillus, Balanus Hameri, 51, Lepas anatifera, 56, Centropages hamatus, 60, Ameira sp.

Amphiascus Giesbrechtii. Moreover, the following species should be noted, regarding whose distribution in Greenland only very little was known previously, 1 b, Brachyura larva Hyas coarctatus? Spirontocaris microceros, Haploops setosa, Paraduhchia typica, Mesidothea Sabinei, Janthe libbeyi, Nebalia bipes, Pseudocalanus elongatus adult and Copepodites , 57, Acartia longiremis, 70, Diaptomus minutus. Account of the Crustacea and the Pycnogonida. List of the stations and of tiie Crustacea from each station.

A, Benthos. Depth 41—21 m. Hyas coarctatus 1 spec. Eupagurus pubescens 1 spec. Spirontocaris spinus 2 spec. Opisa Eschriohtii 2 spec. Ampelisca macrocephala 1 spec. Haploops setosa 35 spec. Paradulichia typica 1 spec. Herpyllobius arcticus 1 spec. Balanus porcatus 3 spec.

Eupagurus pubescens 2 spec. Spirontocaris spinus 1 spec. Aristias tumidus 4 spec. Haploops setosa 8 spec. Melita dentata 1 spec. Podocerus latipes 4 spec. Parapleustes pulchellus 2 spec. Spirontocaris groenlandica 1 spec. Aristias tumidus 2 spec.

Eupagurus pubescens 4 spec. Spirontocaris Gaimardii 3 spec. Metopa pollexiana 12 spec. Stegocephalus inflatus 1 spec. Acanthozone cuspidata 1 spec. Metopa leptocarpa 1 spec. Janthe libbeyi 1 spec. Balanus Hameri 1 spec.

Balanus porcatus 9 spec. Pseudopallene circularis 1 spec. Acanthonotosoma serratum 1 spec. Haploops tubicola 4 spec. Nectocrangon lar 1 spec. Sclerocrangon boreas 1 spec. Haploops setosa 1 spec. Spirontocaris Fabricii 1 spec. Nectocrangon lar 5 spec. Nectocrangon lar 2 spec. Anonyx nugax 1 spec. Nebalia bipes 10 spec.

Balanus crenatus 4 spec. Diastylis scorpioides 1 spec. Aristias tumidus 25 spec. Anonyx lagena 2 spec. Paroediceros lynceus 3 spec. Diastylis scorpioides 4 spec. Nebalia bipes 1 spec. Nectocrangon lar 4 spec. Rhoda Raschii 2 spec. Haploops tubicola about 50 spec. Orchomenella pinguis 1 spec.

Haploops setosa 16 spec. Unciola leucopis 65 spec. Erichthonius megalops 4 spec. Eudorella emarginata 2 spec. Gammarus locusta 22 spec. Mesidothea Sabinei 1 spec. Balanus balanoides about 20 spec. Mesidothea Sabinei 4 spec. Pontoporeia femorata 1 spec. Mesidothea Sabinei 15 spec.

Spirontocaris Gaimardii 1 spec. Haploops tubicola 18 spec. Eupagurus pubescens 7 spec. Balanus porcatus 2 spec. Spirontocaris spinus 3 spec. Eupagurus pubescens 6 spec. Eupagurus pubescens 3 spec. Acanthozone hystrix 2 spec. Socarnes bidenticulatus 1 spec. Spirontocaris Gaimardii 2 spec. Sabinea septemcarinata 1 spec. Nectocrangon lar 3 spec.

Nymphon serratum 1 spec. Spirontocaris Fabricii 3 spec Haploops tubicola 1 spec. Diastylis scorpioides 9 spec. Haploops tubicola 16 spec. Ischyrocerus anguipes 14 spec. Caprella septentrionalis 8 spec. Gammarus locusta, between high- Balanus crenatus about 20 spec, and low-water marks, about 10 sp. Between St. Brachyura larva same species as that recorded from the Tjalfe Ex- pedition ; a few spec, see p.

Pseudocalanus elongatus, adult and Copepodites. Nauplii Pseudocalanus elongatus : Copepo- dites. Pseudocalanus elongatus, both adult and Copepodites ; numerous. Calanus finmarchicus ; a few. Pseudocalanus elongatus ; numer. Ameira sp. Acartia longiremis, some spec. Centropages hamatus Cirripedia: Cypris stages and Nau- plii. A few scarcely determinable Cope- poda. Calanus fin,marchicus; a few.

Amphiascus Giesbrechtii, 1 spec. Monstrilla Wandelii n. Cirripede Nauplii. Pseudocalanus elongatus ; Cope- podites. Pseudocalanus elongatus ; a few Copepodites. Metridia longa; a few. Nauplii ; numerous. Metridia longa ; a few. A few Nauplii. Metridia longa, 20 — 30 spec. Girripede Nauplii. Pseudocalanus elongatus ; a few Gopepodites. Steenstrup's apparatus A few Nauplii, or else no specimens. Galanus hyperboreus, 1?. Metridia longa, about The fruit has a green outer rind and pink inner flesh, and may be available at a grocery store near you.

Screening of mango Mangifera indica L. Cooking vitamin C-rich foods or storing them for a long period of time can reduce the vitamin C content. Carrot is believed to have the highest amount vitamin A, containing more than percent of it. Green mangoes actually have more vitamin C content than their yellow or red counterparts. This is because the orange is the fruit that is most associated with vitamin C, and for good reason; they are packed full of it.

For example, combining them with Greek yogurt makes for a filling protein rich snack. The rose hip is a small, sweet, tangy fruit from the rose plant. Strawberries can be enjoyed in all sorts of ways. Vitamin C Plus contains 8mg of zinc to support wound healing and metabolism of protein, carbohydrates and fats. Administering vitamin C topically through the skin has a better effect for this than taking it orally. G sugar, calories, 2g carbs, flavors, hint of pineapple mango The basic type of mango is Mangos, raw, where the amount of vitamin c in g is Mangos contain over 20 different vitamins and minerals, helping to make them a superfood.

The vitamin C content of over 50 commercial and wild fruit is listed, both by serving and by mg sample. The guava is a fruit that you may not have come across. Mango is an excellent source of vitamin C which keeps your eyes healthy 2. To discover even more vitamin C rich foods, check out this page. Rose Hips. Mango has Abundant Amount of Vitamin A. Dried mango possesses several beneficial nutrients, including vitamin A, which, along with other nutrients, helps to regulate metabolism, as well as calcium and iron.

Citrus fruits like pineapple or orange-colored fruit in general, such as mango, are high in Vitamin C. Mangiferin: mango is one of the primary dietary sources of this unique polyphenol. ALL of them, however, say it provides the recommended daily serving of vitamin C that adults need.

Papaya is also a good source of potassium, folate and vitamin E. Different sources say different things amount the amount of vitamin C one mango provides. When people fall ill, they are often advised to regularly drink hot water combined with lemon, ginger and honey. During the drying process, water-soluble vitamins like vitamin C are lost.

Sa depann nan ki faz li ye epitou ki tip mango li ye. This enzyme has been linked with a variety of health benefits, including reduced inflammation, cancer prevention and improved gut health. Again, the pulp provides ample fiber which we all need for regularity. A cup of raw mango has 60 milligrams of vitamin C, which fulfills 80 percent of the vitamin C RDA for women, and about 66 percent of a man's recommended daily vitamin C intake.

Microwaving and steaming vitamin C-rich foods may reduce cooking losses. Vitamin C; Vitamin E; Carotenoids: mangoes contain a range of different carotenoids, such as carotenes and lutein 10, Mango, on the other hand, has a mere 35 percent of vitamin A. This amount supplies 8 percent of The basic type of a mango is Mangos, raw, where the amount of vitamin c in g is It also reduces level of stress and depression and maintains sense of taste and smell.

Papaya is a delicious tropical fruit that is loaded with nutrients, antioxidants and other powerful substances. On top of that though, here are the fruits that I focus on to top off my vitamin c needs. In the U. Free radicals might play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases. That, plus calcium, vitamin A, potassium, and folate which makes this great for pregnant women. This creates a powerful vitamin C rich tonic that may help to reduce the severity of symptoms associated with the common cold.

Not only will the mango supply your vitamin C, but a plant-based dish will certainly provide other health benefits. Even the berries is in addition assumed for you to hinder several hazardous diseases. Orange juice is also high in vitamin C, providing you with more than mg per cup. The total body content of vitamin C ranges from mg at near scurvy to about 2 g [ 4 ].

Some experts believe that people should consume much more than the recommended daily allowance for good health. Grapefruit is another tropical citrus fruit that is well-known for its sour taste. Vitamin C is also vital to your body's healing process. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

Studies have found that these substances may be beneficial for reducing inflammation, fighting off cancer, improving heart health and protecting the skin. Get it as soon as Fri, Nov Mango salads are a simple way to add extra servings Besides the fruits mentioned above, there are others that have vitamin C in lesser amounts.

This vitamin, richly packed into mangos, plays an important role in immune function. Complex pear and juicy mango round out the flavor of this delicious smoothie, and provide an excellent source of vitamin C. Compare Mango to Orange by vitamins and minerals using the only readable nutrition comparison tool. Similarly, it helps in healing wounds, and keeps gums and teeth healthy. G sugar, calories, 2g carbs, flavors, hint of pineapple mango Mangoes are grown in tropical climates.

These fruits are most popular during the summer, but are usually available year round. Mangoes are dense with a number of vitamins, including vitamin C, vitamin A and B vitamins such as vitamin B-2, folate and vitamin B Mangoes as well as other citrus fruits are efficient sources of vitamin C. One cup of raw mango contains about 60 mg of vitamin C, which is almost two-thirds of the recommended daily intake for men and 80 percent for women 2.

Vitamin C is one of the safest and most effective nutrients, experts say. J Agric Food Chem March 9;53 5 This, combined with their moderate sugar content makes them a fantastic fruit to have when trying to lose weight, especially if you have a sweet tooth.

Papaya is best enjoyed fresh, whether as a salad or in the form of a juice. Blended vegetable juice cocktail has more than 65 milligrams of vitamin C in an 8-ounce serving.

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