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Furan is toxic and carcinogenic in rodents. Because of the large potential for human exposure, furan is classified as a possible human carcinogen. The detailed mechanism by which furan causes toxicity and cancer is not yet known. Since furan toxicity requires cytochrome Pcatalyzed oxidation of furan, we have characterized the urinary and hepatocyte metabolites of furan to gain insight into the chemical nature of the reactive intermediate.

This intermediate forms pyrrole cross-links with cellular amines such as lysine and glutamine. In this report, we demonstrate that GSH-BDA also forms cross-links with ornithine, putrescine and spermidine when furan is incubated with rat hepatocytes. The relative levels of these metabolites are not completely explained by hepatocellular levels of the amines or by their reactivity with GSH-BDA. Mercapturic acid derivatives of the spermidine cross-links were detected in the urine of furan-treated rats, which indicates that this metabolic pathway occurs in vivo.

Their detection in furan-treated hepatocytes and in urine from furan-treated rats indicates that polyamines may play an important role in the toxicity of furan PMID Structure, bonding, and reactivity of reactant complexes and key intermediates. Borylnitrenes: electrophilic reactive intermediates with high reactivity towards C-H bonds. The present article summarizes the matrix isolation investigations that were aimed at identifying, characterizing and investigating the chemical behaviour of 3a by spectroscopic means, and of the experiments in solution and in the gas phase that were performed with 3b.

Comparison with the reactivity reported for difluorovinylidene 1a in solid argon indicates that 3a shows by and large similar reactivity , but only after photochemical excitation. The derivative 3b inserts into the C-H bonds of hydrocarbon solvents in high yields and thus allows the formation of primary amines, secondary amines, or amides from "unreactive" hydrocarbons.

It can also be used for generation of methylamine or methylamide from methane in the gas phase at room temperature. Remaining challenges in the chemistry of borylnitrenes are briefly summarized. In vitro evidence for the formation of reactive intermediates of resveratrol in human liver microsomes. Resveratrol 3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound found in a variety of foods and over-the-counter health products.

It has gained wide public use due to its potential health properties, and is available over-the-counter at health product stores. Although the safety profile of resveratrol has been minimally investigated in humans, resveratrol has been associated with observations of toxicity in vitro, and has been identified as a mechanism-based inhibitor of cytochrome P 3A4.

In addition, resveratrol has been rationally hypothesized to form reactive quinone methide metabolites, despite experimental evidence supporting this assumption. This work evaluates the potential for resveratrol to form glutathione-trapped reactive intermediates in human liver microsomes utilizing liquid chromatography and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, and has resulted in the identification of several in vitro products including two hydroxylated metabolites piceatannol and metabolite 2 , and two pairs of regioisomeric glutathione adducts.

The parallel metabolism of resveratrol to piceatannol and metabolite 2 a putative quinone methide are demonstrated to result in the formation of two putative quinone methide intermediates resulting in divergent mechanisms for formation of each pair of regioisomeric glutathione adducts. Understanding the mechanism of catalytic fast pyrolysis by unveiling reactive intermediates in heterogeneous catalysis. Hemberger, Patrick; Custodis, Victoria B. Catalytic fast pyrolysis is a promising way to convert lignin into fine chemicals and fuels, but current approaches lack selectivity and yield unsatisfactory conversion.

Understanding the pyrolysis reaction mechanism at the molecular level may help to make this sustainable process more economic. Reactive intermediates are responsible for product branching and hold the key to unveiling these mechanisms, but are notoriously difficult to detect isomer-selectively. Here, we investigate the catalytic pyrolysis of guaiacol, a lignin model compound, using photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, which allows for isomer-selective detection of reactive intermediates.

In combination with ambient pressure pyrolysis, we identify fulvenone as the central reactive intermediate , generated by catalytic demethylation to catechol and subsequent dehydration. The fulvenone ketene is responsible for the phenol formation. This technique may open unique opportunities for isomer-resolved probing in catalysis, and holds the potential for achieving a mechanistic understanding of complex, real-life catalytic processes.

An efficient synthesis of spiro-fused macrolactams by a multicomponent macrocyclization reaction MCMR is reported. The use of highly reactive , transient intermediates in this MCMR permits short reaction times, even at high dilution. The antioxidant capacity and formation of photochemically produced reactive intermediates RI was studied for water samples collected from the Florida Everglades with different spatial marsh versus estuarine and temporal wet versus dry season characteristics.

This technique provides detailed information about the chemical environment and electronic structure of iron. Therefore, it has played an important role in studies of the numerous iron-containing proteins and enzymes. This approach is particularly powerful for detection and characterization of reactive intermediates. We have recently used this methodology to study the reactions of various mononuclear non-heme-iron enzymes by trapping and characterizing several Fe IV -oxo reaction intermediates.

In this article, we summarize these findings and demonstrate the potential of the method. Nitrous oxide production from reactive nitrification intermediates : a concerted action of biological and chemical processes. This contribution tries to open up a new perspective on biogeochemical N2O production processes, taking the term bio-geo-chemistry literally.

What if a major part of N2O is produced from reactive intermediates of microbiological N turnover processes "bio…" leaking out of the involved microorganisms into the soil "…geo…" and then reacting chemically "…chemistry" with the surrounding matrix? There are at least two major reactive N intermediates that might play a significant role in these coupled biological-chemical reactions, i. While these reactions can occur over a broad range of soil characteristics, they are ignored in most current N trace gas studies in favor of biological processes only.

Disentangling microbiological from purely chemical N2O production is further complicated by the fact that the chemically formed N2O is either undiscernible from N2O produced during nitrification, or shows an intermediate 15N site preference between that of N2O from nitrification and denitrification, respectively. Results from experiments with live and sterilized soil samples, with artificial soil mixtures and with phenolic lignin decomposition model compounds will be presented that demonstrate the potential contribution of these abiotic processes to soil N trace gas emissions, given a substantial leakage rate of these reactive.

Variable association of reactive intermediate genes with systemic lupus erythematosus in populations with different African ancestry. Little is known about the genetic etiology of systemic lupus erythematosus SLE in individuals of African ancestry, despite its higher prevalence and greater disease severity. Overproduction of nitric oxide NO and reactive oxygen species are implicated in the pathogenesis and severity of SLE, making NO synthases and other reactive intermediate -related genes biological candidates for disease susceptibility.

We analyzed variation in reactive intermediate genes for association with SLE in 2 populations with African ancestry. A total of single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNP from 53 regions were analyzed in non-Gullah African Americans AA; cases and controls and the genetically more homogeneous Gullah of the Sea Islands of South Carolina cases and controls. Single-marker, haplotype, and 2-locus interaction tests were computed for these populations. Haplotype and 2-locus interaction analyses also uncovered different loci in each population.

These results suggest distinct patterns of association with SLE in African-derived populations; specific loci may be more strongly associated within select population groups. Reaction of 2-acetylaminofluorene-N-sulfate with RNA and glutathione: evidence for the generation of two reactive intermediates with different reactivities towards RNA and glutathione. The sulfate ester of N-hydroxyacetylaminofluorene AAF-N-sulfate is one of the reactive intermediates of this carcinogen.

Reactions involving the nitrenium ion with several nucleophiles under various conditions were studied. The presence of mM KCI had the same decreasing effect in both cases. Ionic strength effects may be involved in these phenomena. These results suggest that two independent reactive intermediates are formed from AAF-N-sulfate, with different reactivities towards RNA and glutathione. Possibly these intermediates are the 'hard' triplet state nitrenium ion and the 'soft' singlet state nitrenium ion.

Cysteine, cysteamine and penicillamine were most effective in the inhibition of RNA adduct formation; the extent of inhibition correlated with the extent of AAF formation. The mechanisms involved are discussed. The RcaE cyanobacteriochrome uses a linear tetrapyrrole chromophore to sense the ratio of green and red light to enable the Fremyella diplosiphon cyanobacterium to control the expression of the photosynthetic infrastructure for efficient utilization of incident light. The femtosecond photodynamics of the embedded phycocyanobilin chromophore within RcaE were characterized with dispersed femtosecond pump-dump-probe spectroscopy, which resolved a complex interplay of excited-state proton transfer, photoisomerization, multilayered inhomogeneity, and reactive intermediates.

Three photoproducts were resolved and originates from four independent subpopulations, each with different dump-induced behavior: Lumi-Go was depleted, Lumi-Gr was unaffected, and Lumi-Gf was enhanced. This suggests that RcaE may be engineered to act either as an in vivo fluorescent probe after single-pump excitation or as an in vivo optogenetic sample after pump and dump excitation. The origin of the reactivity of the Criegee intermediate : implications for atmospheric particle growth.

However, this picture of a nearly inert closed shell contradicts its rich atmospheric reactivity. Department of Energy under Contract No. Signal interactions between nitric oxide and reactive oxygen intermediates in the plant hypersensitive disease resistance response.

Nitric oxide NO and reactive oxygen intermediates ROIs play key roles in the activation of disease resistance mechanisms both in animals and plants. Such cytotoxic events occur because unregulated NO levels drive a diffusion-limited reaction with O 2 - to generate peroxynitrite ONOO - , a mediator of cellular injury in many biological systems. Here we show that in soybean cells unregulated NO production at the onset of a pathogen-induced hypersensitive response HR is not sufficient to activate hypersensitive cell death.

Moreover, hypersensitive cell death is activated after interaction of NO not with O 2 - but with H 2 O 2 generated from O 2 - by superoxide dismutase. Thus although plants and animals use a similar repertoire of signals in disease resistance, ROIs and NO are deployed in strikingly different ways to trigger host cell death.

Seasonal and spatial variabilities in the water chemistry of prairie pothole wetlands influence the photoproduction of reactive intermediates. The hydrology and water chemistry of prairie pothole wetlands vary spatially and temporally, on annual and decadal timescales. Pesticide contamination of wetlands arising from agricultural activities is a foremost concern. Photochemical reactions are important in the natural attenuation of pesticides and may be important in limiting ecological and human exposure.

Little is known, however, about the variable influence of wetland water chemistry on indirect photochemistry. In this study, seasonal water samples were collected from seven sites throughout the prairie pothole region over three years to understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of reactive intermediate photoproduction. Samples were classified by the season in which they were collected spring, summer, or fall and the typical hydroperiod of the wetland surface water temporary or semi-permanent.

Under photostable conditions, steady-state concentrations and apparent quantum yields or quantum yield coefficients were measured for triplet excited states of dissolved organic matter, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, and carbonate radical under simulated sunlight. Computed quantum yields for reactive intermediate formation were used to predict the indirect photochemical half-lives of seven pesticides in average temporary and semi-permanent prairie pothole wetlands. As a first approximation, the predictions agree to within two orders of magnitude of previously reported half-lives.

All rights reserved. Insight into the messenger role of reactive oxygen intermediates in immunostimulated hemocytes from the scallop Argopecten purpuratus. Reactive oxygen intermediates ROI are metabolites produced by aerobic cells which have been linked to oxidative stress. Evidence reported in vertebrates indicates that ROI can also act as messengers in a variety of cellular signaling pathways, including those involved in innate immunity.

In a recent study, an inhibitor of NF-kB transcription factors was identified in the scallop Argopecten purpuratus, and its functional characterization suggested that it may regulate the expression of the big defensin antimicrobial peptide ApBD1. The immune stimulation also induced the transcription of ApBD1, which was upregulated in cultured hemocytes.

After neutralizing the ROI produced by the stimulated hemocytes with the antioxidant trolox, the transcription of ApBD1 was reduced near to base levels. The results suggest a potential messenger role of intracellular ROI on the regulation of ApBD1 transcription during the immune response of scallops. Reactivation of model cholinesterases by oximes and intermediate phosphyloximes: A computational study. However, they can also decompose to give an OP derivative and a cyano derivative of the oxime when a base abstracts the benzylic proton.

Based on atomic charges and relative energies, 2-POXs were found to be more inclined towards the decomposition process. Krebs cycle intermediates KCIs are reported to function as energy substrates in mitochondria and to exert antioxidants effects on the brain. The present study was designed to identify which KCIs are effective neuroprotective compounds against oxidative stress in neuronal cells. These three intermediates reduced the production of hydrogen peroxide-activated reactive oxygen species, measured in terms of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate fluorescence.

In contrast, none of the KCIs-used at 1 mM-protected against cell death induced by high concentrations of glutamate-another type of oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death. Because these protective KCIs did not have any toxic effects at least up to 10 mM , they have potential use for therapeutic intervention against chronic neurodegenerative diseases.

Exposure to reactive intermediate -inducing drugs during pregnancy and the incident use of psychotropic medications among children. Our study aimed to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to reactive intermediate RI -inducing drugs and the initiation of psychotropic medications among children.

We designed a cohort study using a pharmacy prescription database. Pregnant women were considered exposed when they received a prescription of RI-inducing drugs. The HRs were increased with prolonged exposure to RI-inducing drugs, especially in the first and second trimesters. In a detailed examination of the psychotropics, the incidences of receiving antimigraine preparations and psychostimulants were significantly increased for the exposed children, compared with the reference children.

The incidences of receiving antipsychotics and hypnotics were also higher for the exposed children; however, the HRs did not reach significance after adjustment. We found a significantly increased incident use of psychotropic medications among children prenatally exposed to RI-inducing drugs, especially during the first and second trimesters. This suggests a detrimental effect during critical periods of brain development. The quinol-linked cytochrome bd oxidases are terminal oxidases in respiration.

The reaction with O2 and subsequent catalytic steps of the Escherichia coli cytochrome bd-I oxidase were investigated by means of ultra-fast freeze-quench trapping followed by EPR and UV-visible spectroscopy. Compound I accumulates to 0.

Compound I is next converted to a short lived heme d oxoferryl intermediate compound II in a phase kinetically matched to the oxidation of heme b before completion of the reaction. The results indicate that cytochrome bd oxidases like the heme-copper oxidases break the O—O bond in a single four-electron transfer without a peroxide intermediate.

However, in cytochrome bd oxidases, the fourth electron is donated by the porphyrin moiety rather than by a nearby amino acid. The production of reactive oxygen species by the cytochrome bd oxidase was below the detection level of 1 per turnovers. We propose that the two classes of terminal oxidases have mechanistically converged to enzymes in which the O—O bond is broken in a single four-electron transfer reaction to safeguard the cell from the formation of reactive oxygen species.

Oxoferryl-porphyrin radical catalytic intermediate in cytochrome bd oxidases protects cells from formation of reactive oxygen species. The reaction with O 2 and subsequent catalytic steps of the Escherichia coli cytochrome bd-I oxidase were investigated by means of ultra-fast freeze-quench trapping followed by EPR and UV-visible spectroscopy.

The results indicate that cytochrome bd oxidases like the heme-copper oxidases break the O-O bond in a single four-electron transfer without a peroxide intermediate. We propose that the two classes of terminal oxidases have mechanistically converged to enzymes in which the O-O bond is broken in a single four-electron transfer reaction to safeguard the cell from the formation of reactive oxygen species.

Dynein-ADP as a force-generating intermediate revealed by a rapid reactivation of flagellar axoneme. Fragmented flagellar axonemes of sand dollar spermatozoa were reactivated by rapid photolysis of caged ATP.

After a time lag of 10 ms, axonemes treated with protease started sliding disintegration. Axonemes without protease digestion started nanometer-scale high-frequency oscillation after a similar time lag. Force development in the sliding disintegration was measured with a flexible glass needle and its time course was corresponded well to that of the dynein-ADP intermediate production estimated using kinetic rates previously reported.

However, with a high concentration approximately 80 microM of vanadate, which binds to the dynein-ADP intermediate and forms a stable complex of dynein-ADP-vanadate, the time course of force development in sliding disintegration was not affected at all. In the case of high frequency oscillation, the time lag to start the oscillation, the initial amplitude, and the initial frequency were not affected by vanadate, though the oscillation once started was damped more quickly at higher concentrations of vanadate.

These results suggest that during the initial turnover of ATP hydrolysis, force generation of dynein is not blocked by vanadate. A vanadate-insensitive dynein-ADP is postulated as a force-generating intermediate. Variable association of reactive intermediate genes with systemic lupus erythematosus SLE in populations with different African ancestry. Ramos, Paula S. Hal; Stevens, Anne M. Objective Little is known about the genetic etiology of systemic lupus erythematosus SLE in individuals of African ancestry, despite its higher prevalence and greater disease severity.

Overproduction of nitric oxide NO and reactive oxygen species are implicated in the pathogenesis and severity of SLE, making NO synthases and other reactive intermediate related genes biological candidates for disease susceptibility. This study analyzed variation in reactive intermediate genes for association with SLE in two populations with African ancestry.

Single-marker, haplotype, and two-locus interaction tests were computed for these populations. Haplotype and two-locus interaction analyses also uncovered different loci in each population. Conclusion These results suggest distinct patterns of association with SLE in African-derived populations; specific loci may be more strongly associated within select population groups. An unprecedentedly reactive iron species 2 has been generated by reaction of excess peracetic acid with a mononuclear iron complex [Fe II CF3SO3 2 PyNMe3 ] 1 at cryogenic temperatures, and characterized spectroscopically.

Bimolecular reaction rates are at least an order of magnitude faster than those of the most reactive synthetic high-valent nonheme oxoiron species described to date. Consistent with this assignment, 2b undergoes exchange of its acetate ligand with CD3CO2D and very rapidly reacts with olefins to produce the corresponding cis-1,2-hydroxoacetate product. Therefore, this work constitutes the first example where a synthetic nonheme iron species responsible for stereospecific and site selective C-H hydroxylation is spectroscopically trapped, and its catalytic reactivity against C-H bonds can be directly interrogated by kinetic methods.

Direct evidence for tumor necrosis factor-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen intermediates and their involvement in cytotoxicity. Tumor necrosis factor TNF is selectively cytotoxic to some types of tumor cells in vitro and exerts antitumor activity in vivo.

By using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and the ROI-specific probe dihydrorhodamine , we directly demonstrate that intracellular ROIs are formed after TNF stimulation. These ROIs are observed exclusively under conditions where cells are sensitive to the cytotoxic activity of TNF, suggesting a direct link between both phenomena. ROI scavengers, such as butylated hydroxyanisole, effectively blocked the formation of free radicals and arrested the cytotoxic response, confirming that the observed ROIs are cytocidal.

The mitochondrial glutathione system scavenges the major part of the produced ROIs, an activity that could be blocked by diethyl maleate; under these conditions, TNF-induced ROIs detectable by dihydrorhodamine oxidation were 5- to fold higher. Images Fig. The Criegee intermediates are carbonyl oxides that play critical roles in ozonolysis of alkenes in the atmosphere. Guided and supported by high-level full-dimensional quantum calculations, rotational contours of the four observed bands are simulated successfully and provide definitive identification of both conformers.

The direct infrared detection of syn- and anti-CH3CHOO should prove useful for field measurements and laboratory investigations of the Criegee mechanism. Leishmania amazonensis fails to induce the release of reactive oxygen intermediates by CBA macrophages. CBA mouse macrophages effectively control Leishmania major infection, yet are permissive to Leishmania amazonensis.

It has been established that some Leishmania species are destroyed by reactive oxygen species ROS. We hypothesized that L. The level of accumulated H 2 O 2 is 20 times higher in L. Furthermore, macrophages stimulated with L. These findings support previous studies showing that CBA macrophages are effective in controlling L. Furthermore, these data reinforce the notion that L. Reactivity and reaction intermediates for acetic acid adsorbed on CeO 2 TPD shows that thedesorption products are strongly dependent upon the initial oxidation state of the CeO 2 surface, includingselectivity between acetone and acetaldehyde products.

Furthermore, DFT and RAIRS show that below K, bridge bondedacetate coexists with a moiety formed by adsorption of an acetate at an oxygen vacancy, formed bywater desorption. The native fold of this protein is well-established and models have been proposed from crystallographic and biophysical data for the stable inter-molecular configuration that terminates the polymerization pathway.

The reactivity of both carbohydrates was compared in regards of their degradation, browning, and antioxidant activity. In order to identify relevant differences in the reaction pathways, the concentrations of selected intermediates such as 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds, furans, furanones, and pyranones were determined. It was found, that the degradation of maltose predominantly yields 1,2-dicarbonyls that still carry a glucosyl moiety and thus subsequent reactions to HMF, furfural, and 2-acetylfuran are favored due to the elimination of d-glucose, which is an excellent leaving group in aqueous solution.

Consequently, higher amounts of these heterocycles are formed from maltose. We address this issue in invasive aspergillosis and demonstrate that host and fungal responses inextricably connect copper and reactive oxygen intermediate ROI mechanisms.

Published by Elsevier Inc. Novel type 1 photosensitizers: viability of leukemia cells exposed to reactive intermediates generated in situ by in vitro photofragmentation. Photodynamic therapy of tumors involving Type 2 photosenstizers has been conspicuously successful, but the Type 1 process, in contrast, has not received much attention despite its considerable potential.

The cells were incubated with the photosensitizer at various concentrations, and were illuminated for 5, 10, and 20 minutes. The results show that all the photosensitizers caused cell death compared to the controls when exposed to both the photosensitizers and light. Most importantly, selective cell death was observed with the azido peptide conjugate 6, which clearly demonstrates that these Type 1 sensitizers are useful for phototherapeutic applications. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of reactive intermediates in photochemical and transition metal-assisted oxidation, decarboxylation and alkyl transfer reactions.

Reactive species like high-valent metal-oxo complexes and carbon and oxygen centered radicals are important intermediates in enzymatic systems, atmospheric chemistry, and industrial processes. Understanding the pathways by which these intermediates form, their relative reactivity , and their fate after reactions is of the utmost importance. Herein are described the mechanistic detail for the generation of several reactive intermediates , synthesis of precursors, characterization of precursors, and methods to direct the chemistry to more desirable outcomes yielding 'greener' sources of commodity chemicals and fuels.

Yields of H 2O2 increased with acid concentration. Both are capable of scavenging strongly oxidizing intermediates. These studies elucidate key frontier molecular orbitals FMOs and their contribution to H atom abstraction reactivity. USA , , Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material including forming the extrusion die. This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut.

The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc.

This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life. Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material, including forming the extrusion die. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon, or the like as in a glovebox.

Design of specially adapted reactive coordinates to economically compute potential and kinetic energy operators including geometry relaxation. Quantum dynamics simulations require prior knowledge of the potential energy surface as well as the kinetic energy operator. Typically, they are evaluated in a low-dimensional subspace of the full configuration space of the molecule as its dimensionality increases proportional to the number of atoms.

This entails the challenge to find the most suitable subspace. We present an approach to design specially adapted reactive coordinates spanning this subspace. In addition to the essential geometric changes, these coordinates take into account the relaxation of the non- reactive coordinates without the necessity of performing geometry optimizations at each grid point.

The method is demonstrated for an ultrafast photoinduced bond cleavage in a commonly used organic precursor for the generation of electrophiles. The potential energy surfaces for the reaction as well as the Wilson G-matrix as part of the kinetic energy operator are shown for a complex chemical reaction, both including the relaxation of the non- reactive coordinates on equal footing.

A microscopic interpretation of the shape of the G-matrix elements allows to analyze the impact of the non- reactive coordinates on the kinetic energy operator. Additionally, we compare quantum dynamics simulations with and without the relaxation of the non- reactive coordinates included in the kinetic energy operator to demonstrate its influence. Intermediate treatments. Intermediate treatments are those applied after a new stand is successfully established and before the final harvest.

These include not only intermediate cuttings - primarily thinning - but also fertilization, irrigation, and protection of the stand from damaging agents. John Schmisseur PI Many TPS materials act as a catalyst for the. A performance comparison of scalar, vector, and concurrent vector computers including supercomputers for modeling transport of reactive contaminants in groundwater. Sophisticated and highly computation-intensive models of transport of reactive contaminants in groundwater have been developed in recent years.

Application of such models to real-world contaminant transport problems, e. Although not widely recognized as such, the computational complexity and demand of these models compare with well-known computation-intensive applications including weather forecasting and quantum chemical calculations. Furthermore, RISC-based workstations provide the best platforms for "visualization" of groundwater flow and contaminant plumes.

Employment of fluorophore-tagged alkyl and aryl iodides permitted detection of persistent surface intermediates during their direct insertion to commercially available zinc powder. The sensitivity of this subensemble microscopy technique enabled structure— reactivity studies in the formation of intermediates that are present in quantities sufficiently low as to have been undetected previously by traditional ensemble analytical techniques. In these surface intermediates we transformed them using lithium chloride, which lead to the assignment of the mechanistic role of lithium chloride as changing the rate-determining step in the reaction by lowering the barrier for solubilization of these otherwise persistent surface organometallic intermediates.

Detection of these zinc surface intermediates at the single-molecule level, i. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy EDS measurements of the elemental composition of the surface of the zinc powder determined that lithium chloride does not clean the surface of the oxides; instead, pretreatment of the surface with TMSCl effects partial removal of surface oxides after the 2 h pretreatment time previously reported in the empirically optimized synthetic procedure.

The current limitations of this microscopy approach are also determined and discussed with respect to the addition of solid reagents during in operando imaging. Response to reactive nitrogen intermediates in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: induction of the kilodalton alpha-crystallin homolog by exposure to nitric oxide donors.

In contrast to the apparent paucity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis response to reactive oxygen intermediates , this organism has evolved a specific response to nitric oxide challenge. Exposure of M. In this work, the most prominent Nox polypeptide, Nox16, was identified by immunoblotting and by N-terminal sequencing as the alpha-crystallin-related, kDa small heat shock protein, sHsp A panel of chemically diverse donors of nitric oxide, with the exception of nitroprusside, induced sHsp16 Nox We conclude that the NO response in M.

Characterization of metastable intermediates formed in the reaction between a Mn II complex and dioxygen, including a crystallographic structure of a binuclear Mn III -peroxo species. Transition-metal peroxos have been implicated as key intermediates in a variety of critical biological processes involving O2. Because of their highly reactive nature, very few metal-peroxos have been characterized. The dioxygen chemistry of manganese remains largely unexplored despite the proposed involvement of a Mn-peroxo, either as a precursor to, or derived from, O2, in both photosynthetic H2O oxidation and DNA biosynthesis.

These are arguably two of the most fundamental processes of life. Neither of these biological intermediates has been observed. Intermediate 3 releases approximately 0. This represents the first characterized example of a binuclear Mn III -peroxo, and a rare case in which more.

Computational study on the aminolysis of beta-hydroxy-alpha,beta-unsaturated ester via the favorable path including the formation of alpha-oxo ketene intermediate. Three possible pathways, the concerted pathway path A , the stepwise pathway involving tetrahedral intermediates path B , and the stepwise pathway via alpha-oxo ketene intermediate due to the participation of beta-hydroxy path C , are taken into account for the title reaction.

Moreover, path C includes two sequential processes. The first process is to generate alpha-oxo ketene intermediate via the decomposition of N-methyl methoxycarbonyl hydroxypyridone; the second process is the addition of dimethylamine to alpha-oxo ketene intermediate. Our results indicate that path C is more favorable than paths A and B both in the gas phase and in solvent heptane. Being independent of the concentration of amine, the first process obeys the first-order rate law. Identification of the residue in human CYP3A4 that is covalently modified by bergamottin and the reactive intermediate that contributes to the grapefruit juice effect.

Previous studies have demonstrated that bergamottin BG , a component of grapefruit juice, is a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP3A4 and contributes, in part, to the grapefruit juice-drug interaction. Although the covalent binding of [ 14 C]BG to the CYP3A4 apoprotein has been demonstrated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the identity of the modified amino acid residue and the reactive intermediate species of BG responsible for the inactivation have not been reported.

Catalytic and reactive polypeptides and methods for their preparation and use. Catalytic and reactive polypeptides include a binding site specific for a reactant or reactive intermediate involved in a chemical reaction of interest. The polypeptides further include at least one active functionality proximate the bi. Reactive Intermediates or Inert Graphene? Atomic-level identification of carbon intermediates under reaction conditions is essential for carbon-related heterogeneous catalysis.

The growth rate of graphene is significantly restrained at higher CH 4 pressures, due to the accelerated etching of its carbon precursors. The identification of in operando carbon intermediates and the control of their evolution have great potential in designing heterogeneous catalysts for the direct conversion of methane.

Germination of radish Raphanus sativus cv Eterna seeds can be inhibited by far-red light high-irradiance reaction of phytochrome or abscisic acid ABA. Gibberellic acid GA3 restores full germination under far-red light. Germination in darkness is accompanied by a steep rise in ROI release originating from the seed coat living aleurone layer as well as the embryo. At the same time as the inhibition of germination, far-red light and ABA inhibit ROI release in both seed parts and GA3 reverses this inhibition when initiating germination under far-red light.

During the later stage of germination the seed coat also releases peroxidase with a time course affected by far-red light, ABA, and GA3. The participation of superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals in ROI metabolism was demonstrated with specific in vivo assays. ROI production by germinating seeds represents an active, developmentally controlled physiological function, presumably for protecting the emerging seedling against attack by pathogens. Role of reactive oxygen intermediates in the interferon-mediated depression of hepatic drug metabolism and protective effect of N-acetylcysteine in mice.

We have observed that administration to mice of IFN and IFN inducers caused a marked increase in liver xanthine oxidase activity. Because this enzyme is well known to produce reactive oxygen intermediates and cytochrome P was reported to be sensitive to the oxidative damage, we have tested the hypothesis that a free radical mechanism could mediate the depression of cytochrome P levels by IFN. Concomitant p. The results suggest that an increased endogenous generation of free radicals, possibly due to the induction of xanthine oxidase, is implicated in the IFN-mediated depression of liver drug metabolism.

The relevance of these data also extends to cases in which this side effect is observed in pathological situations e. Suicide inactivation of cytochrome P by methoxsalen. Evidence for the covalent binding of a reactive intermediate to the protein moiety. Binding was increased by pretreatments with phenobarbital, beta-naphthoflavone beta NF and dexamethasone. Such pretreatments also increased the loss of CO-binding capacity either after administration of methoxsalen, or after incubation of hepatic microsomes with methoxsalen and NADPH.

Whereas methoxsalen itself did not produce any binding spectrum, in contrast either in vivo administration of methoxsalen or incubation in vitro with methoxsalen and NADPH resulted in a low-to-high spin conversion of cytochrome P as suggested by the appearance of a spectrum analogous to a type I binding spectrum. This low-to-high spin conversion was apparently due to a methoxsalen intermediate probably, covalently bound to the protein and preventing partial sixth ligation of the iron.

Depletion calculations assuming an infinite lattice condition were performed with calculations of various reactivity coefficients performed at each step. Anemia is a known risk factor for clinical failure following antiretroviral therapy ART. Notably, anemia and inflammation are interrelated, and recent studies have associated elevated C- reactive protein CRP , an inflammation marker, with adverse human immunodeficiency virus HIV treatment outcomes, yet their joint effect is not known.

The objective of this study was to assess prevalence and risk factors of anemia in HIV infection and to determine whether anemia and elevated CRP jointly predict clinical failure post-ART. It is shown that the influence of rescattering effects in the intermediate state on the tensor target spin asymmetries is sizable at extreme backward pion angles.

At forward angles, the contribution from the pure impulse approximation is dominated and the spin asymmetries show very little influence of rescattering effects. The sensitivity of results to the elementary pion photoproduction operator and to the NN potential model adopted for the deuteron wave function is investigated, and considerable dependences are found.

The predicted spin asymmetries are also compared with available experimental data, and a satisfactory agreement with the recent data from VEPP-3 is obtained at photon energies below MeV. At higher energies, the calculated spin asymmetries slightly underestimate the data. Roth, and James F. Mata, A Session IX. Messenger Mediated Intraorgan Effects. Oxygen reactivity of the biferrous site in the de novo designed four helix bundle peptide DFsc: nature of the " intermediate " and reaction mechanism.

The DFsc and DFscE11D de novo designed protein scaffolds support biomimetic diiron cofactor sites that react with dioxygen forming a nm " intermediate " species with an apparent pseudo-first-order formation rate constant of 2. Resonance Raman spectroscopy shows that this absorption feature is due to a phenolate-to-ferric charge transfer transition arising from a single tyrosine residue coordinating terminally to one of the ferric ions in the site.

Phenol coordination could provide a proton to promote rapid loss of a putative peroxo species. To evaluate macrophagic activity, peritoneal and splenic lavages were performed for determination of oxygen H2O2 and nitrogen NO intermediates. The immune response against serovar Pomona in those lines, was characterized by high antibody production, especially in later periods of the infectious process, whereas values of bacterial recovery in culture medium were lower.

Results suggest that such lines could be an important model to investigate the pathogenesis and the immune response of animals against the several Leptospira serovars. In addition, 1 can also work as an effective catalyst for the C-N coupling reactions under the same reaction conditions, indicating that 1 may be an effective intermediate of the catalytic system. The results suggest that the radical path dominates in the reaction, with phen KNPh2 as the possible radical source.

The structures of 1 and phen KNPh2 were both determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Suppression was independent of cysteine-depletion and hydrogen peroxide production. Cranberry juice consumption lowers markers of cardiometabolic risk, including blood pressure and circulating C- reactive protein, triglyceride, and glucose concentrations in adults.

Cardiometabolic risk is the risk of cardiovascular disease CVD , diabetes, or stroke, which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of low-calorie cranberry juice LCCJ to lower cardiometabolic risk. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study was conducted with controlled diets. Twice daily volunteers consumed mL of LCCJ or the placebo beverage, containing or 62 mg of phenolic compounds and 6.

Serum C- reactive protein CRP was lower for individuals consuming LCCJ than for individuals consuming the placebo beverage [ln transformed values of 0. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials. Purpose Reports evaluating diagnosis and cross reactivity of quinolone hypersensitivity have revealed contradictory results. Furthermore, there are no reports investigating the cross- reactivity between gemifloxacin GFX and the others. We aimed to detect the usefulness of diagnostic tests of hypersensitivity reactions to quinolones and to evaluate the cross reactivity between different quinolones including the latest quinolone GFX.

Methods We studied 54 patients mean age Results The majority The most common culprit drug was CFX A quarter of the patients Conclusions These results suggest that STs, BAT, and LTT are not supportive in the diagnosis of a hypersensitivity reaction to quinolone as well as in the prediction of cross- reactivity.

Drug provocation tests DPTs are necessary to identify both culprit and alternative quinolones. Closer insight into the reactivity of TMP-dialkyl zincates in directed ortho-zincation of anisole: experimental evidence of amido basicity and structural elucidation of key reaction intermediates. In 6 the distinct metals are connected through the anisole ligand which binds in an ambidentate fashion through carbon-zinc and oxygen-lithium contacts and also through one of the methyl groups, to close a [LiOCCZnC] six-membered ring; whereas 8 displays an open structure where anisole connects the two metals in the same mode as in 6 but with the tert-butyl groups exclusively bonded terminally to zinc.

Reactivity studies of zincates 4 and 7 with the amine TMP H supply experimental evidence that these heterobimetallic compounds are intermediates in the two-step deprotonation reaction of anisole by TMP-dialkyl zincates and show the relevance of the alkyl groups in the efficiency of TMP-dialkyl zincate bases. In addition, important solvent effects have also been evaluated. This lithium-rich zincate has also been spectroscopically and crystallographically characterized.

Analytical resolution of the reactive diffusion equation for transient electronics including materials whose porosity value changes in terms of their thickness. Transient electronic devices are a new technology development whose main characteristic is that its components can disappear in a programmed and controlled way, which means such devices have a pre-engineered service life. Nowadays, transient electronics have a large application field, involving from the reduction of e-waste in the planet until the development of medical instruments and implants that can be discarded when the patients do not need it anymore, avoiding the trouble of having an extra procedure for them.

These devices must be made from biocompatible materials avoiding long-term adverse effects in the environment and patients. It is fundamental to develop an analytical model that allows describing the behavior of these materials considering cases which its porosity may be constant or not, in presence of water or any other biofluid. In order to accomplish this analysis was solve the reactive diffusion equation based on Bromwich's integral and the Residue theorem for two material cases, those whose porosity is constant, and those whose porosity increases linearly in terms of its thickness, where was found a general expression.

This allows to the analysis of the relation of the electric resistance per unit length and the rate of dissolution of the material. Coupled ice sheet - climate simulations of the last glacial inception and last glacial maximum with a model of intermediate complexity that includes a dynamical downscaling of heat and moisture.

Comprehensive fully coupled ice sheet - climate models allowing for multi-millenia transient simulations are becoming available. They represent powerful tools to investigate ice sheet - climate interactions during the repeated retreats and advances of continental ice sheets of the Pleistocene. However, in such models, most of the time, the spatial resolution of the ice sheet model is one order of magnitude lower than the one of the atmospheric model.

As such, orography-induced precipitation is only poorly represented. In this work, we briefly present the most recent improvements of the ice sheet - climate coupling within the model of intermediate complexity iLOVECLIM. On the one hand, from the native atmospheric resolution T21 , we have included a dynamical downscaling of heat and moisture at the ice sheet model resolution 40 km x 40 km.

This downscaling accounts for feedbacks of sub-grid precipitation on large scale energy and water budgets. From the sub-grid atmospheric variables, we compute an ice sheet surface mass balance required by the ice sheet model. On the other hand, we also explicitly use oceanic temperatures to compute sub-shelf melting at a given depth. Based on palaeo evidences for rate of change of eustatic sea level, we discuss the capability of our new model to correctly simulate the last glacial inception kaBP and the ice volume of the last glacial maximum 21 kaBP.

We show that the model performs well in certain areas e. Canadian archipelago but some model biases are consistent over time periods e. Kara-Barents sector. We explore various model sensitivities e. TGA and DSC thermal analysis have indicated that the copolymers were thermally stable under regular pulping conditions, revealing the inertness of the styrene polymer backbone in the investigation of electron transfer mechanisms.

Both processes were distance dependent. Intermediate Astronomy. Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include : publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and statistics….

Intermediate water recovery system. A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a Recommendations for improving the system are included.

The Intermediate Neutrino Program. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. Materials and method. The course of pregnancy and delivery, the type of delivery, applied preventive measures and treatment, as well as demographic data and the clinical state of infants were all analysed. Data from individual documentation of each mother and infant were collected by 5 designated people and data reliability was independently monitored by a random control of the documentation conducted by the supervising person.

A statistically significant relationship between the occurrence of respiratory distress syndrome and infant immaturity, bad state after birth and sepsis in infants were confirmed. Sepsis was more common in the case of vaginal delivery, and coexisted with respiratory distress syndrome. Perinatal asphyxia in an infant positively correlated with a Caesarean section and respiratory distress syndrome after birth. It is necessary to thoroughly establish the type of delivery of a late preterm infant in order to prevent an infection in the newborn child.

The improvement of diagnosis of intrauterine hypoxia may reduce the number of Caesarean sections. Premature delivery is related to the. Factors associated with weaning practices in term infants : a prospective observational study in Ireland. However, in many countries, this recommendation is followed by few mothers, and earlier weaning onto solids is a commonly reported global practice.

From an initial sample of pregnant women recruited from the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dublin, eligible mothers were followed up at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Only one mother 0. Ninety-one Provision of professional advice and exploring antenatal maternal misperceptions are potential areas for targeted interventions to improve compliance with the recommended weaning practices. Impact of maternal depressive symptoms and infant temperament on early infant growth and motor development: results from a population based study in Bangladesh.

Evidence linking maternal depressive symptoms with infant 's growth and development in low-income countries is inadequate and conflicting. This study investigated the independent effect of maternal perinatal depressive symptoms on infant 's growth and motor development in rural Bangladesh. A cohort of pregnant women was followed from the third trimester of pregnancy to months postpartum.

For growth and developmental outcomes, infants at months and months were assessed. Explanatory variables comprised maternal depressive symptoms, socioeconomic status, and infant 's health and temperament. Outcome measures included infant 's underweight, stunting and motor development. Multiple linear regression analyses identified predictors of infant growth and development. Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms independently predicted infant 's underweight and impaired motor development, and antepartum depressive symptoms predicted infant 's stunting.

Infant 's unadaptable temperament was inversely associated with infant 's weight-for-age and motor development, and fussy and unpredictable temperament with height-for-age and motor development. Repeated measures design might threaten the internal validity of the results 8. As the study was conducted in two sub-districts of rural Bangladesh, it does not represent the urban scenario and cannot be generalized even for other rural areas of the country. This study provides evidence that maternal ante- and postpartum depressive symptoms predict infant 's growth and motor development in rural Bangladesh.

It is recommended to integrate psychosocial components in maternal and child health interventions in order to counsel mothers with depressive symptoms. Decisions of black parents about infant bedding and sleep surfaces: a qualitative study. The goal of this qualitative study was to examine factors influencing decisions by black parents regarding use of soft bedding and sleep surfaces for their infants.

We conducted focus groups and individual interviews with black mothers of lower and higher socioeconomic status SES. Mothers were asked about many infant care practices, including sleep surface and bedding. Eighty-three mothers were interviewed, 73 47 lower and 26 higher SES in focus groups and 10 7 lower and 3 higher SES in individual interviews. The primary reason for using soft surfaces was infant comfort. Parents perceived that infants were uncomfortable if the surface was not soft. The primary reasons for using soft bedding including bumper pads were comfort, safety, and aesthetics.

In addition to using bedding to soften sleep surfaces, bedding was used to prevent infant rollover and falls, particularly for infants sleeping on a bed or sofa. Some parents used soft bedding to create an attractive space for the infant. Many black parents believe that soft bedding will keep their infant safe and comfortable.

There is much misunderstanding about the meaning of a "firm" sleep surface. Additional educational messages apparently are needed to change parental perceptions and practices. Study on the relationship between infant rotavirus enteritis and breast feeding. Objective: To study the relationship between infant rotavirus enteritis and breast feeding, with emphasis on early immuno-protection provided by breast feeding as well as later possible hazards with rotavirus carrier mothers.

Methods: Stool specimens from infants with diarrhea were screened for rotavirus with colloid gold method. Results: In local Qingdao infants with enteritis, the over-all incidence of rotavirus infection was Positive rate in breast-feeding infants was only The virus infectivity rate in both groups of breast- feeding infants below 6 months and months was lower than the corresponding rate in the bottle feeding group.

However, infant fed from rotavirus carriers had significantly higher fecal positive rate of rotavirus than that in infants fed from non-carriers. Conclusion: 1 At beginning, especially below 6 months, breast-feeding provided important protection again rotavirus enteritis in the infants. Maternal and infant vitamin D status during the first 9 months of infant life-a cohort study. Vitamin D levels were not associated with anthropometric indices of the newborn infant or their growth during follow-up.

They were followed up three times during 9 months. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes. Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children.

Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment MFA during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children.

Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad.

Gender imbalance in infant mortality: a cross-national study of social structure and female infanticide. Sex differentials in infant mortality vary widely across nations. Because newborn girls are biologically advantaged in surviving to their first birthday, sex differentials in infant mortality typically arise from genetic factors that result in higher male infant mortality rates. Nonetheless, there are cases where mortality differentials arise from social or behavioral factors reflecting deliberate discrimination by adults in favor of boys over girls, resulting in atypical male to female infant mortality ratios.

We find strong evidence for modernization theory, human ecology, and the evolutionary psychology of group process, but mixed evidence for gender perspectives. Attachment behaviors in mothers of premature infants : a descriptive study in Thai mothers. Prematurity and the associated maternal- infant separation after birth can affect the attachment process. The role of nurses in facilitating the process of attachment should be based on an understanding of these behaviors.

This descriptive study explored the attachment behaviors demonstrated by mothers during their first visit with their premature infant in the neonatal care unit. The results revealed that all mothers demonstrated most attachment behaviors ie, inspection, facial expression, touching, verbal expression, and eye-to-eye contact except holding during their first visit.

However, some mothers spent little time with their infant. The findings suggest that nurses should encourage mothers to interact with their infants in order to enhance maternal- infant attachment. Change in movement patterns asymmetry in infants with central coordination disorder in continuous studies.

Full Text Available Study aim: the aim of the study was to observe the dynamics of changes in postural symmetry in infants during the first year of life, undergoing a therapy using the NDT-Bobath method. A cross sectional study on health status of infants in rural areas of Kamrup, Assam. Inadequate care, malnutrition and infections in this crucial period lead to high neonatal and infant deaths and also high prevalence of morbidities.

But data on childhood and infant mortality and morbidities are still not adequate in North Eastern part of India, so this cross sectional study was initiated. Female infants were found to be more malnourished. A statistically significant association was found between gender and nutritional status.

However, recent data in Western countries have implicated the overestimation of child development by the new instrument. This study aimed to investigate the psychometric features of the Bayley-III for term and preterm infants in Taiwan. The psychometric properties examined included reliability, construct validity, and known-group validity. The intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of the Bayley-III were good to excellent. Term infants achieved higher composite scores than preterm infants on all of the Bayley-III scales pcognitive, language, and motor delay, respectively, as defined by the BSID-II index score infants.

Lipoid pneumonia in infants : A radiological-pathological study. A series of nine infants , months of age, with a history of animal or vegetable fat intake within 10 days after birth, is presented. The infants developed respiratory problems and failure to thrive. Plain films and computed tomography showed areas of consolidation in the medial-posterior parts of the lungs. The areas of consolidation showed three types of changes of computed tomography.

Attenuation measurements did not reveal fat. The pathological findings were an intense lymphocytic infiltration with scattered granulomas which contained lipid deposit. A Study on Music-Cognition in Infants. In this paper, we made a survey of researches of music-cognition on infants level.

Consequently, we found that musical behavior of infants develops by steps and the ability of music-cognition is discovered in earlier stage than expected so far. But we think there is a problem in the method, because those researches have used concepts of Western musicology for appraisal.

We are afraid that these concepts set music-cognition in a frame and as a result we lost the sight of the ability of music-c Maternal prepregnancy obesity and achievement of infant motor developmental milestones in the upstate KIDS study. Maternal prepregnancy obesity is associated with several poor infant health outcomes; however, studies that investigated motor development have been inconsistent.

Thus, maternal prepregnancy weight status and infants ' gross motor development were examined. Mothers indicated dates when infants achieved each of six gross motor milestones when infants were 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months old. Failure time modeling under a Weibull distribution was utilized to compare time to achievement across three levels of maternal prepregnancy BMI. Hazard ratios HR below one indicate a lower "risk" of achieving the milestone and translate to later achievement.

Full Text Available Introduction: Breast feeding is protective for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, obesity, Diabetes Mellitus DM and hypertension. Serum lipoprotein is principal risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lipoprotein level is affected by different feeding pattern during infancy. Aim: To compare serum lipoprotein profile of exclusively breast fed, mixed fed and formula fed preterm infant.

Materials and Methods: A total of two fifty preterm newborn were recruited at birth and divided into three groups. Preterm newborns with severe sepsis, hypoglycemia, Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy HIE stage II and III, meconium stained amniotic fluid, pathological jaundice, Hyaline Membrane Disease HMD, less than 28 weeks gestation, with major congenital anomaly and infants born to mothers with DM, gestational diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia or on long term medications were excluded from the study.

Lipoprotein profile estimation was done at four weeks and again at 16 weeks of age. MF p infants. When infants were followed up to 16 weeks of age, TC and LDL level fell significantly p infants , but. Compared to breast-fed infants , bottle-fed infants consume greater volumes and gain more weight during infancy.

Perinatal factors influencing infant feeding practices at birth: the Bedouin Infant Feeding Study. Bedouin Arab women delivering newborns at Soroka Medical Center, Israel, during 1 year were interviewed in hospital to determine the factors influencing infant feeding practices at birth. Based on a multiple logistic regression analysis, the factors that significantly reduced the odds ratio OR of exclusive breastfeeding vs.

Mothers of high-risk neonates and those who deliver by Caesarean section need to be educated about the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. Young primiparae are a challenge and require qualitative and quantitative research into the reasons precluding exclusive breastfeeding.

Bothun, Erick D. Objective To evaluate the characteristics of strabismus in infants who underwent cataract surgery with and without intraocular lens IOL implantation. Intervention Infants underwent cataract surgery with or without placement of an IOL.

Main Outcome Measures The proportion of patients who developed strabismus during the first 12 months of follow-up was calculated using the life-table method, and compared across treatment groups and age strata using a log-rank test. Results Strabismus developed within the first 12 months of follow-up in 38 life table estimate: The younger cohort strabismus 29 of 50, life table estimate: However, strabismus was less likely to develop in infants whose cataract was removed at an earlier age.

Full Text Available Infant formula is based on cow's milk and designed to mimic breast milk for substitution. Vitamin B12 B12 is bound to proteins in both breast milk and cow's milk, and in milk from both species the vitamin occurs mainly in its natural form such as hydroxo-B12 with little or no synthetic B12 cyano-B Eleven commercially available infant formulas were measured for content of B12 and analyzed for the presence of Bbinding proteins and forms of B12 using size exclusion chromatography and HPLC.

All infant formulas contained B12 by and large in accord with the informations given on the package inserts. This pilot study shows that infant formula differs from breast milk in providing the infant with free B12, rather than protein-bound B12, and by a relative high content of cyano-B The consequence of supplying the infant with synthetic cyano-B12 remains to be elucidated.

Infant formula is based on cow's milk and designed to mimic breast milk for substitution. Stability of infant and child feeding index over time and its association with nutritional status of HIV exposed infants in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study. Even though many studies showed that infant and child feeding index has a statistically significant association with nutritional status, there is paucity of studies on stability of infant and child feeding index over time and its association with nutritional status of HIV exposed infants.

This study aimed to investigate the stability of infant and child feeding index over time that is developed based on the current recommendations and its association with nutritional status of HIV exposed infants in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. A panel study design was conducted in health institutions in Sidama Zone from February to July, Three repeated measurements of data were collected from each HIV exposed infant aged months over the 6 month follow-up period approximately per 2 month interval.

The cross-sectional index was found stable overtime with the repeatability coefficient of 0. The index is stable overtime at individual level even though one third of the index components were not stable. Maternal and infant activity: Analytic approaches for the study of circadian rhythm.

The study of infant and mother circadian rhythm entails choice of instruments appropriate for use in the home environment as well as selection of analytic approach that characterizes circadian rhythm. While actigraphy monitoring suits the needs of home study , limited studies have examined mother and infant rhythm derived from actigraphy.

Among this existing research a variety of analyses have been employed to characterize h rhythm, reducing ability to evaluate and synthesize findings. Few studies have examined the correspondence of mother and infant circadian parameters for the most frequently cited approaches: cosinor, non-parametric circadian rhythm analysis NPCRA , and autocorrelation function ACF. The purpose of this research was to examine analytic approaches in the study of mother and infant circadian activity rhythm.

Forty-three healthy mother and infant pairs were studied in the home environment over a 72h period at infant age 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Activity was recorded continuously using actigraphy monitors and mothers completed a diary. Results suggest that cosinor analysis, NPCRA, and autocorrelation provide several comparable parameters of infant and maternal circadian rhythm center, fit, and phase. IS and IV were strongly correlated with the h cycle fit. The circadian parameters analyzed offer separate insight into rhythm and differing effect size for the detection of change over time.

Findings inform selection of analysis and. A pilot study of hyperfractionated radiotherapy for infants with retinoblastoma. Purpose: This study was undertaken to assess the use of twice daily fractionated radiotherapy using low doses per fraction in the treatment of intraocular retinoblastoma in infants in terms of local control, ocular complications and bony growth disturbances.

Methods: Children were irradiated using standard techniques including en face electrons 3 patients or opposed lateral photon fields to one or both orbits 7 patients. Patients were treated with cGy twice daily with an inter fraction interval of 4 or more hours to total doses of 43 to 45 Gy. No patients received chemotherapy.

Nine patients presented with nonfamilial bilateral retinoblastoma; one later failed in the pineal region representing trilateral retinoblastoma. The tenth patient had advanced unilateral disease. Of 19 eyes involved with tumor, 13 were group V and all patients had at least one eye with advanced disease group III-V.

Two patients underwent enucleation of the more advanced eye up front and received radiation to the intact eye only. Overall survival was 8 of 10 patients with a median follow-up of 28 months range months. Two patients died of distant metastases, one with local recurrence and one with trilateral disease but local control. Further local therapy included plaque therapy in 3 eyes, cryotherapy in 3 eyes and enucleation in one eye.

Surgery was refused for one patient with bilateral recurrences. Post-irradiation ocular loss occurred in 5 of 19 eyes. Exhaled nitric oxide and urinary EPX levels in infants : a pilot study. Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective markers of early airway inflammation in infants are not established but are of great interest in a scientific setting. Objective To investigate the feasibility of measuring FeNO and uEPX in infants and their mothers and to determine if any relations between these two variables and environmental factors can be seen in a small sample size.

Methods Consecutive infants between two and six months old and their mothers at children's health care centres were invited, and mother- infant pairs participated. FeNO was analyzed in the mothers online by the use of the handheld Niox Mino device and in the infants offline from exhaled air sampled during tidal breathing. A question multiple-choice questionnaire that dealt with symptoms of allergic disease, heredity, and housing characteristics was used.

Results FeNO levels were reduced in infants with a history of upper respiratory symptoms during the previous two weeks p Conclusion The use of uEPX as a marker of early inflammation was not supported. FeNO levels in infants were associated to windowpane condensation. Measuring FeNO by the present method may be an interesting way of evaluating early airway inflammation. In a major population study , however, the method is difficult to use, for practical reasons.

Heparinization of alimentation solutions administered through peripheral veins in premature infants : a controlled study. Twenty-two-gauge Teflon catheters were uniformly used. One hundred five catheters infused with heparin were placed in 13 infants , and catheters were placed in the control group of 13 infants. The time, nature, and incidence of complications were noted for each infusion site.

Infusion of heparin was found to double the duration of patency of intravenous catheters and to reduce significantly the incidence of phlebitis. No complications related to the administration of heparin were noted. Heparinization of intravenous alimentation solutions should therefore be considered in premature infants as a means of reducing the work load and incidence of complications associated with peripheral lines.

A pilot study of the effect of human breast milk on urinary metabolome analysis in infants. This study aimed to examine the nutritional effect of breast feeding on healthy term infants by using urinary metabolome analysis. Urine samples were collected from 19 and 14 infants at 1 and 6 months, respectively. This study therefore focuses on prenatal risk factors that may influence the quality of pre- and postnatal bonding, the transition to parenthood, and bonding as a process within families with young children.

Parental characteristics are investigated using self-report questionnaires at 15, 26, and 36 weeks gestational age and at 4, 6, 12, and 24 months postpartum. At 26 weeks of pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum, parents are interviewed concerning their representations of the unborn child. At 6 months postpartum, the mother-child interaction is observed in several situations within the home setting.

Functional connectivity in the first year of life in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder: an EEG study. Full Text Available In the field of autism research, recent work has been devoted to studying both behavioral and neural markers that may aide in early identification of autism spectrum disorder ASD. These studies have often tested infants who have a significant family history of autism spectrum disorder, given the increased prevalence observed among such infants.

In the present study we tested infants at high- and low-risk for ASD based on having an older sibling diagnosed with the disorder or not at 6- and months-of-age. We computed intrahemispheric linear coherence between anterior and posterior sites as a measure of neural functional connectivity derived from electroencephalography while the infants were listening to speech sounds.

We found that by months-of-age infants at risk for ASD showed reduced functional connectivity compared to low risk infants. Moreover, by months-of-age infants later diagnosed with ASD showed reduced functional connectivity, compared to both infants at low risk for the disorder and infants at high risk who were not later diagnosed with ASD. Significant differences in functional connectivity were also found between low-risk infants and high-risk infants who did not go onto develop ASD.

These results demonstrate that reduced functional connectivity appears to be related to genetic vulnerability for ASD. Moreover, they provide further evidence that ASD is broadly characterized by differences in neural integration that emerge during the first year of life. In the field of autism research, recent work has been devoted to studying both behavioral and neural markers that may aide in early identification of autism spectrum disorder ASD. Ecological validity and infant research: An example from an experimental study on object individuation with familiar objects in 8-month-old infants.

I will attempt to show that such an analysis can be worthwhile. The presentation falls in three sections. The first section is a presentation Using the so-called "violation-of-expectation" method, the study employed a design that recently In the third and final section the results obtained in the experiment are discussed, not only in relation to the existing litterature within the field of research of object individuation, but also by specificly applying the concept Greater brain response to emotional expressions of their own children in mothers of preterm infants : an fMRI study.

The birth of a preterm infant and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit hospitalization constitute a potentially traumatic experience for mothers. Although behavioral studies investigated the parenting stress in preterm mothers, no study focused on the underlying neural mechanisms. We examined the effect of preterm births in mothers, by comparing brain activation in mothers of preterm and full-term infants.

While viewing own infant 's face preterm mothers showed increased activation in emotional processing area i. Differential brain activation patterns in mothers appears to be a function of the atypical parenthood transition related to prematurity. To examine the prevalence and correlates of nighttime awakenings and to explore the association between sleep and cognitive development in a community sample of infants and toddlers. A total of healthy infants aged months and toddlers aged months from 8 provinces of China were assessed for their sleep and cognitive development.

Data on sleep duration and nighttime awakenings were collected through the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. Cognitive development was assessed by trained pediatricians using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.

Nighttime awakenings were generally associated with younger age, lower maternal education level, and being currently breastfed. In addition, nighttime awakenings were associated with being boys in toddlers. Total sleep duration was not associated with any developmental indices in both infants and toddlers.

Frequent nighttime awakenings are associated with poor cognitive functions in toddlers. Meanwhile, a nonlinear association between nighttime awakenings and cognitive performance was found among infants. The findings provide a developmental context for the effect of sleep on cognitive abilities in young children. Further longitudinal studies and interventional studies on the effects of parent-based sleep-focused intervention on cognitive abilities among young children are warranted.

Formaldehyde exposure and lower respiratory infections in infants : findings from the PARIS cohort study. Certain chemical pollutants can exacerbate lower respiratory tract infections LRIs , a common childhood ailment. Although formaldehyde FA is one of the most common air pollutants found in indoor environments, its impact on infant health is uncertain.

FA was measured in a random sample of infants ' dwellings, and exposure to this pollutant was estimated for 2, infants using predictive models based on measurements and data about potential determinants of FA levels. Health data were collected from parents by regular self-administered questionnaires. During the first year of life, For an interquartile increase in FA levels The findings of this study suggest that infants exposed to FA at an early age have an increased incidence of LRI.

Survival and health in liveborn infants with transposition of great arteries--a population-based study. To describe treatment, survival, and morbidity for liveborn infants with isolated transposition of great arteries TGA. Ninety-seven infants were diagnosed with isolated TGA and livebirth prevalence was 2. Arterial switch surgery was performed in 78 infants , other or unknown type of surgery was performed in 3 cases, and for 6 infants there was no information on surgery.

There was no statistically significant regional difference in mortality. Data on morbidity at 1 year of age was available for 57 infants. Fifty-one infants were reported with normal health and development. In this population-based study survival for liveborn infants with TGA is lower than in studies published from tertiary centers. Outcome for survivors at 1 year of age seems favorable. Comparing infant and juvenile behavior in bonobos Pan paniscus and chimpanzees Pan troglodytes : a preliminary study.

The dichotomy between the two Pan species, the bonobo Pan paniscus and chimpanzee Pan troglodytes has been strongly emphasized until very recently. Given that most studies were primarily based on adult individuals, we shifted the "continuity versus discontinuity" discussion to the infant and juvenile stage.

Our aim was to test quantitatively, some conflicting statements made in literature considering species differences between immature bonobos and chimpanzees. On one hand it is suggested that infant bonobos show retardation in motor and social development when compared with chimpanzees. Additionally it is expected that the weaning process is more traumatic to chimpanzee than bonobo infants.

But on the other hand the development of behaviors is expected to be very similar in both species. We observed eight mother- infant pairs of each species in several European zoos. Our preliminary research partially confirms that immature chimpanzees seem spatially more independent, spending more time at a larger distance from their mother than immature bonobos. However, the other data do not seem to support the hypothesis that bonobo infants show retardation of motor or social development.

The development of solitary play, environmental exploration, social play, non-copulatory mounts and aggressive interactions do not differ between the species. Bonobo infants in general even groom other group members more than chimpanzee infants.

We also found that older bonobo infants have more nipple contact than same aged chimpanzees and that the weaning process seems to end later for bonobos than for immature chimpanzee. Additionally, although immature bonobos show in general more signs of distress, our data suggest that the weaning period itself is more traumatic for chimpanzees. Mineral balance studies in very low birth weight infants fed human milk. Mineral homeostasis often is disrupted in the very low birth weight VLBW infant fed either human milk or commercial formula that contains insufficient quantities of available calcium Ca and phosphorus P.

Alterations in mineral homeostasis include abnormal patterns of serum Ca and P concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity and urine Ca and P biochemical markers, low net Ca and P retentions in comparison with intrauterine estimates of mineral accretion, and decreased bone mineral content.

A two-phase study was conducted in our laboratory to test for these alterations in mineral homeostasis. In phase 1, VLBW infants fed a preparation of fortified human milk either human milk-derived fortifier I or II or cow milk-derived fortifier or cow milk-based formula specially designed for VLBW infants were evaluated during their hospitalization. In phase 2, after hospitalization, these infants were evaluated during the first 6 months of life when fed either their mother's milk or routine formula exclusively.

The bioavailability of Ca and P from the tested preparations varied widely. Although the fortification of human milk resulted in both an improved biochemical pattern and net retention of Ca and P, optimal intrauterine mineral accretion was not achieved in any group tested. Longitudinal assessments of bone mineralization, by single photon absorptiometry, demonstrated that human milk-fed former VLBW infants had reduced bone mineral content.

These investigations suggest that former VLBW infants fed human milk exclusively may be at risk for Ca and P deficiencies. Full Text Available Research questions: 1. What are the infant feeding practices in a rural area? What are the reasons underlying the harmful infant feeding practices?

Objectives: 1. To study feeding practices among infants. To find out the factors underlying various harmful practices. To determine Whether the Practice of giving diluted animal milk to infants is associated with type of family, caste or educational status of mother. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Rural field practice center of a Medical College in Delhi. Participants: Mothers of infants Months of age, attending immunization clinic. Statistical analysis: Percentage, chi square test.

Results: Water was commonly given to breast fed babies and top feeds introduced early. Consequently exclusive breast-feeding was uncommon. Semisolids were started late and diluted animal milk was commonly given to infants ; as mothers often thought that child can not digest semisolids or undiluted milk. Milk was also diluted for economic reasons.

Insufficient breast milk, illness of mother or child were cited as main reasons for early introduction of top milk. Methods: This retrospective study assessed the mortality and morbidities of all premature infants born alive at 23—26 gestational weeks at SQUH between June and May Infants referred to SQUH within 72 hours of birth during this period were also included.

Electronic records were reviewed for gestational age, gender, birth weight, maternal age, mode and place of delivery, antenatal steroid administration, morbidity and outcome. The survival rate was calculated and findings were then compared with those of a previous study conducted in the same hospital from to Rates of major morbidities were also calculated.

Results: A total of 81 infants between 23—26 gestational weeks were admitted to the neonatal unit during the study period. Of these, Of the 81 infants , 49 survived. The overall survival rate was Respiratory distress syndrome Conclusion: The overall survival rate of infants between 23—26 gestational weeks during the study period had significantly improved in comparison to that found at the same hospital from to There is a need for the long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of premature infants.

This retrospective study assessed the mortality and morbidities of all premature infants born alive at gestational weeks at SQUH between June and May A total of 81 infants between gestational weeks were admitted to the neonatal unit during the study period. The overall survival rate of infants between gestational weeks during the study period had significantly improved in comparison to that found at the same hospital from to Infant feeding practices among mildly wasted children: a retrospective study on Nias Island, Indonesia.

Four focus groups and twenty in-depth interviews were conducted to explore further information on infant feeding practices in the study area. Qualitative assessments found that inappropriate infant feeding practices were strongly influenced by traditional beliefs of the mothers and paternal grandmothers in the study areas. Conclusion Generally, suboptimal infant feeding was widely practiced among mothers of mildly wasted children in the study area on Nias Island, Indonesia.

To promote breastfeeding practices among mothers on Nias Island, appropriate nutrition training for community workers and health-nutrition officers is needed to improve relevant counseling skills. In addition, encouraging public nutrition education that promotes breastfeeding, taking into account social.

Peripheral nervous system maturation in preterm infants : longitudinal motor and sensory nerve conduction studies. To study the evolution of sensory-motor nerves in the upper and lower limbs in neurologically healthy preterm infants and to use sensory-motor studies to compare the rate of maturation in preterm infants at term age and full-term healthy neonates. The data from the preterm infants at term was matched with a group of ten full-term babies a few days after birth.

The motor nerve conduction velocity of the tibial and ulnar nerves showed progressive increases in values in relation to gestational age, but there was a decrease of values in distal latencies and F wave latencies. Similarly, there was a gradual increase of sensory nerve conduction velocity values of the medial plantar and median nerves and decreases in latencies in relation to gestational age. At term age, the preterm infants showed significantly lower values of conduction velocities and distal latencies than the full-term neonates.

These results were probably because the preterm infants had significantly lower weights, total length and, in particular, distal segments of the limbs at term age. The sensory-motor conduction parameters were clearly related to gestational age, but extrauterine life did not affect the maturation of the peripheral nervous system in the very preterm babies who were neurologically healthy. The energy expenditure VO2 was measured during the first 36 hours of life in 10 infants of diabetic mothers IDM and in 16 normal newborns NB.

The respiratory quotients were similar for both groups. Although the low VO2 for IDM is unexplained, several hypothesis might be anticipated: either lack of utilization of abundant endogenous glycogen stores or increased metabolism of glucose by the cells. Factors associated with the time to the first wheezing episode in infants : a cross-sectional study from the International Study of Wheezing in Infants EISL.

Male gender, asthmatic heredity, perinatal tobacco smoke exposure and respiratory infections have been associated with wheeze in the first years of life, among other risk factors. However, information about what factors modify the time to the first episode of wheeze in infants is lacking. The present study analyses which factors are associated with shorter time to the first episode of wheeze in infants.

Parents of to month-old children were surveyed when attending their health-care centres for a control visit. They answered a questionnaire including the age in months when a first wheeze episode if any had occurred outcome variable. Factors known to be associated with wheezing in the cohort were included in a survival analysis Cox proportional hazards model.

Summary hazard ratios adjusted for all risk factors aHR were calculated using the meta-analysis approach with random effects. A total of 15, infants had experienced wheezing at least once, out of 35, surveyed. Male gender in LA aHR 1. Breast feeding for at least 3 months was associated with a longer period, only in LA aHR 0.

Symptomatic Dengue infection during pregnancy and infant outcomes: a retrospective cohort study. Full Text Available Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that is common in many tropical and subtropical areas. Dengue infections can occur at any age and time in the lifespan, including during pregnancy.

Few large scale studies have been conducted to determine the risk of preterm birth PTB and low birthweight LBW for infants born to women who had symptomatic dengue infection during pregnancy. This study is a retrospective cohort study using medical records from from pregnant women who attended a public regional referral hospital in western French Guiana. Exposed pregnancies were those with laboratory confirmed cases of dengue fever during pregnancy.

Each of the 86 exposed infants was matched to the three unexposed births that immediately followed them to form a stratum. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze these matched strata. Odds ratios were adjusted aOR for maternal age, maternal ethnicity, maternal gravidity, interpregnancy interval and maternal anemia.

More research is needed to confirm these results and to examine the role of dengue fever in miscarriage. Full Text Available Background Parents having a baby with infantile colic experienced thoughts and emotions such as hopelessness, fatigue and concern. This study presents a review to provide better insights into the life of parents living with a colicky infant.

The aimed of this meta-synthesis was to analyze and synthesize findings from qualitative studies about the experiences of parents of colicky infants. Materials and Methods This meta-synthesis follows the guidelines of Sandeowski and Barroso and was designed to synthesize findings from previous qualitative studies. Recently published articles and books on the experiences of parents living with a colicky infant were reviewed.

The searches covered the years from to and found three studies , which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Results The findings of all studies selected were categorized into the themes of "eclipse of normal life" and "relief through parental adaptation". The findings reveal that the experiences of parents living with a colicky infant are important for constructing an insightful child care protocol and improving interpersonal interactions in the family.

Conclusion The pathic or non-diagnostic knowledge that emerged from this qualitative review may be helpful for improving treatment of colicky infants and a provide relief for their parents. Assessment of infant exposure to food chemicals: the French Total Diet Study design. More than chemical substances were analysed in food products consumed by children under 3 years old, including nutrients, several endocrine disruptors resulting from human activities polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans, brominated flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl acids, pesticide residues, etc.

To obtain a representative and general view of infant food consumption, food items were selected based on results of a national consumption survey conducted specifically on this population. Moreover, a specific study on food was conducted on households to determine which home-cooking practices are employed to prepare food consumed by infants.

Overall, the targeted chemical substances were analysed in more than food samples, representing the purchase and home-cooking practices of over food products. Foods included common foods such as vegetables, fruit or cakes as well as specific infant foods such as infant formula or jarred baby food. Specificities in infant food consumption and habits were therefore considered to define this first infant TDS.

This study , conducted on a large scale and focusing on a particularly sensitive population, will provide accurate information on the dietary exposure of children under 3 years to food chemicals, especially endocrine disruptors, and will be particularly useful for risk assessment analysis under the remit of ANSES' expert committees. In a context with strong rhetorical support for breastfeeding in the health system, yet extremely low rates of breastfeeding after hospital discharge, U.

Popular wisdom in the U. Mothers are advised by peers and family to introduce formula or solid foods to infants to promote longer sleep. The first objective of this study was to investigate women's understandings of the nature of infant sleep and their perceptions of links between infant feeding method and sleep. The second was to explore how these perceptions influence infant feeding and sleep practices.

Underpinning our work is the understanding that infant care choices result from trade-offs by which mothers strive to balance infant - and self-care. We conducted seven focus groups with mothers of infants in two regions of the U. Verbatim transcripts were thematically coded and emergent themes were identified.

We found clearly diverging narratives between breastfeeding and formula-feeding mothers. Breastfeeding mothers viewed the fragmentary nature of infant sleep as natural, while mothers who were formula feeding felt this was a problem to be fixed. The strategies used to promote infant and maternal sleep in each group were aligned with their underlying perception of how infant sleep works. Maternal perceptions of the nature of infant sleep and its relation to infant feeding method impact infant care practices in the first year of life.

This study addresses the "cognition" or "feeling organ" issues on music development, and also discusses mainly the emotion and posture, in order to identify the music experience from the aspect of representation and self-awareness. The effectiveness of eurhythmics Enhancing maternal sensitivity and infant attachment security with video feedback: an exploratory study in Italy.

Juffer, M. Moreover, we explore whether the effectiveness of VIPP-R might be different for parents with insecure attachment representations who might be most in need of preventive intervention, as compared to parents who already have a more balanced and secure state of mind. Main, N. Cassidy, was administered. Moreover, a min mother- infant play situation was videotaped and coded for maternal sensitivity with the Emotional Availability Scales Z.

Biringen, J. Emde, At 13 months of age, the Strange Situation Procedure M. Ainsworth, M. Blehar, E. Wall, was used to assess the security of mother- infant attachment. Results revealed a significant interaction effect between intervention and AAI security for infant attachment security; moreover, main effects of AAI security and intervention for maternal sensitivity were found.

The VIPP-R appears effective in enhancing maternal sensitivity and infant attachment security, although only mothers with an insecure attachment representation may benefit from the intervention. Full Text Available The development of the central nervous system is complex and includes dorsal and ventral induction, neuronal proliferation, and neuronal migration, organization, and myelination.

Migration occurs in humans in early fetal life. Pathogenesis of malformations of the central nervous system includes both genetic and environmental factors. Few epidemiological studies have addressed the impact of prenatal exposures. All infants born alive and included in the Swedish Medical Birth Register — were included in the study.

By linkage to the Patient Register, children with a diagnosis related to a neuronal migration abnormality were identified. Through copies of referrals for computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, the diagnosis was confirmed in 17 children. Median age of the mothers was 29 years.

At the start of pregnancy, four out of 17 women smoked. Almost half of the women had a body mass index that is low or in the lower range of average. All infants were born at term with normal birth weights. Thirteen infants had one or more concomitant diseases or malformations. Two infants were born with rubella syndrome. The impact of low maternal body mass index and congenital infections on neuronal migration disorders in infants should be addressed in future studies. Dropout in looking time studies : The role of infants ' temperament and cognitive developmental status.

Dropout of infants in looking time studies sometimes occurs at high rates, raising concerns that the representativeness of the final sample might be reduced in comparison to the originally obtained sample. The current study investigated which infant characteristics play a role in dropout. Infants were presented with a preferential looking task at 6 and 9 months of age.

At 9 months of age, an additional habituation task and a subsequent novelty preference task were conducted. The representativeness of the final sample regarding situation-specific temperament dimensions is affected by dropout. Dropout at 6 months of age was associated with dropout at 9 months of age.

We concluded that in looking time studies , the representativeness of the final sample regarding performance-relevant temperament dimensions or cognitive developmental status is not affected by dropout. Maternal incarceration, child protection, and infant mortality: a descriptive study of infant children of women prisoners in Western Australia.

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